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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Protons and Neutrons are made of ____________.


Electrons and Neutrinos are not made of quarks. Instead, they are fundamental particles called _______________.


Antimatter exists and can be produced. When a matter particle and it's antimatter opposite meet, they _____________ and release enegry in the form of two light rays.


___________, one of the four forces that govern the universe, affects all matter.


___________, one of the four forces that govern the universe, affects electrically charged particles.


____ _________ _______, one of the four forces that govern the universe, affects particles made from quarks. Very short range.

Strong nuclear force

______ _________ ______, one of the four forces that govern the universe, affects fermions (electrons, neutrinos, changes the flavor of quarks). Very short range.

Weak nuclear force

________ __________ states that two subatomic particles may not exist in the same energy state. More simply, this means that they cannot be in the same place at the same time. (This leads to degenerecy pressure in dwarf/neutron stars, as well as massive star supernova explosions.)

Exclusion Principle

______ ___________ states that the more you know about the where a particle is located, the less you know about it's momentum. Alternately, you can state the same about the particle's energy and time at which you measure it.

Uncertainty Principle

The Interstellar Medium is composed of _____ & _______.

gas, dust

_____ ________ _________ are where stars are born.

Giant molecular clouds

Giant molecular clouds can be detected by _________, ___________, and, when they are very hot, ________ ____ __________.

reddening, extinction, emission of light

A dense, cold cloud begins to collapse and fragment as gravity becomes ___________ than the internal pressure.


Framents of the cloud calles cores from _________.


Contraction and heating of the protostar continues until self-sustaining ___________ begins and pressure again balances gravity.


Star that is less than .08 solar masses that gradually cool and darken.

Brown Dwarf

Extremely low mass stars, between .08 and .04 solar masses, fuse all of their ____________ to ____________ and should just cool off and contract when (first blank) is exausted. This hasn't happened yet, given the age of the universe and the longevity of these stars.

hydrogen, helium

Low mass stars, between .04 and 2 solar masses, end by ejecting a planetary nebula shell and then the carbon core becomes a carbon _______ ________.

White Dwarf

Intermediate mass stars, between 2 and 8 solar masses, end by ejecting a planetary nebula shell, but the star is massive enough so that some of the core becomes an oxygen-neon _____ ________.

White Dwarf

High mass stars, more than 8 solar masses, end as __________.


In a close binary system, it is possible for ________ to be pulled from one star to the other if the (blank) feels the gravity of the destination star more strongly than the source star.


_______ ________ tends to happen when a star with a large radius is orbited by a star with a smaller radius. Can also reverse later, when the smaller star becomes the larger star and vice versa.

Mass transfer

What process is this?

Mass transfers from a companion -> Hydrogen builds on surface and hydrogen fusion begins explosively -> the star becomes a Nova and blows off most of the mass that just fell on it -> Mass buildup continues and reaches 1.4 solar masses -> Gravity causes a collapse and the star's temperature soars -> Carbon fusion begins immeadiately -> star blows up as a ______ _______ ___________, leaving no remnats behind.

White Dwarf supernova

After a massive star supernova, if the neutron core is less than 3 solar masses, a _______ ______ forms. It will be a pulsar if rotating rapidly with a stron magnetic field. If in a binary system, it will be an x-ray burster.

Neutron Star

After a massive star supernova, if the neutron core is more than 3 solar masses, a _______ ______ forms.

Black Hole

_____ ___ _______ come from very distant galaxies and are the most powerful energy bursts in the universe. A long period (a few minutes) probably comes from a supernova explosion forming a black hole. A short period (a few seconds) probably comes from a collision of two orbiting neutron stars.

Gamma Ray bursts