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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the light-gathering power of an 8-inch telescope compared to a 4-inch telescope?


A) 2 times better


B) 4 times better


C) 32 times better


D) 16 times better


E) 8 times better

B

The angular resolution of an 8 inch diameter telescope is ________ times greater than that of a 2 inch diameter telescope.


A) 8


B) 16


C) 9


D) 2


E) 4

E

True or False: Optical telescopes are usually used only at night, but radio telescopes can be used day or night

True

Which of the following is NOT a reason to use a reflecting telescope rather than a refractor?


A) Heavy lenses, which can only be supported at their edges, tend to deform under their own weight.


B) A lens must have two precision surfaces; a mirror needs only one.


C) Lenses absorb light, while mirrors do not.


D) Lenses are harder to focus than mirrors.


E) Lenses are subject to chromatic aberration.

D

Compared to a 5-inch prime focus reflector, a 5-inch Newtonian reflector will


A) have the same light gathering power.


B) have a larger hole in the center of its mirror.


C) have more light gathering power.


D) be easier to build.


E) have more chromatic aberration.

A

The large reflector, the 10 m Keck, gathers ________ light than the 1.0 m Yerkes refractor.


A) 100 times less


B) 10 times more


C) 100 times more


D) 10 times less


E) an equal amount of

C

In astronomy, an interferometer can be used to


A) decrease the effects of light pollution in getting darker sky backgrounds.


B) improve the angular resolution of radio telescopes.


C) speed up the processing of CCD images.


D) increase the sensitivity of infrared telescopes to longer wavelengths.


E) yield better seeing conditions with optical telescopes.

B

Which type of telescope has the simplest light path?


A) achromatic refractor


B) prime focus reflector


C) Cassegrain reflector


D) Newtonian reflector


E) single lens refractor

B

True or False: A telescope design that uses a lens and no mirrors is a refractor.

True

Green light has a shorter wavelength than orange light. In a 5-inch telescope, green light will


A) provide worse angular resolution than orange light.


B) provide better angular resolution than orange light.


C) come to the same exact focus as orange light.


D) allow dimmer stars to be observed.


E) reduce the effects of atmospheric turbulence.

B

It is diffraction that limits the ________ of a telescope of a given objective diameter.


A) light grasp


B) resolution


C) interference


D) magnification


E) aperture

B

True or False: Photography with film is still the preferred way of capturing fine detail in the faintest, most distant galaxies.

False

True or False: Galaxies look the same whether viewed in visible or X-ray wavelengths.

False

True or False: A Newtonian reflector needs no secondary mirror.

False

The primary purpose of a telescope is to


A) make distant objects appear nearby.


B) magnify distant objects.


C) collect a large amount of light and bring it into focus.


D) separate light into its component wavelengths.


E) measure the brightness of stars very accurately.

C

Grazing incidence optics are critical to focusing


A) radio waves.


B) infrared radiation.


c) gamma rays.


D) ultraviolet light.


E) X-rays.

E

One advantage of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground based ones is that


A) it is larger than any Earth-based telescopes.


B) it can better focus X-ray images.


C) in orbit, it can operate close to its diffraction limit at visible wavelengths.


D) its adaptive optics controls atmospheric blurring better.


E) it can make better observations of the ozone layer.

C

True or False: In the future, adaptive optics will greatly enhance the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope.

False

The ability of a telescope to separate two closely spaced stars is called ________.

resolution

________ optics greatly reduces the effect of atmospheric turbulence by deforming the shape of the mirror by computer control.

Adaptive

True or False: All optical telescopes will bring the light from a star to a focus.

True

What is true of radio telescopes?


A) They have poorer angular resolution than a refractor of the same size.


B) They are the smallest, most compact telescopes.


C) They are most sensitive to the opacity of the ozone layer.


D) They have better angular resolution than a reflector.


E) They can only be used above the atmosphere

A

The ________ is a vast, spherical array of long period comet nuclei far beyond the orbit of Neptune.

Oort Cloud

A meteor is


A) a streak of light in the atmosphere.


B) an icy body with a long tail extending from it.


C) an irregularly shaped body, mostly found orbiting between Mars and Jupiter.


D) a chunk of space debris that has struck the ground.


E) a chunk of space debris orbiting the Earth.

A

The ________ Belt bodies orbit beyond Neptune, but like the planets stay close to the ecliptic plane and in fairly circular orbits.

Kuiper

What is true about solar system densities?


A) The asteroids all have about the same density.


B) Planetary density increases with increasing distance from the Sun.


C) The denser planets lie closer to the Sun.


D) In differentiated bodies, the denser materials lie near their surfaces.


E) Saturn has the same density as water.

C

Exoplanets known as super-Earths


A) orbit extremely massive stars.


B) have masses comparable to that of Neptune.


C) have masses 2-10 times that of Earth.


D) have masses comparable to that of Jupiter.


E) have yet to be observed.

C

According to the Solar Nebula theory, planets


A) should be extremely rare.


B) should orbit perpendicular to their star's equator.


C) should be randomly oriented to their star's equator.


D) will revolve opposite the star's rotation.


E) should be a common result of star formation

E

A solid body from the outer solar system that arrives intact on the Earth's surface is called a(n) ________.

meteorite

Which of the following have an icy composition?


A) meteorites and most asteroids


B) the surface of Mars


C) meteoroids


D) comets


E) most asteroids

D

So far, beyond the solar system, the extrasolar planets found have been mostly


A) terrestrials with very elongated, distant orbits like comets.


B) terrestrials very close to their star, and transiting its disk.


C) brown dwarfs much more massive than Jupiter.


D) large jovians orbiting solar-type stars about where our jovians are found.


E) large jovians very close to their star.

E

Relative to the comet, the direction of the ion tail tells us


A) the velocity of the comet.


B) the direction the comet is traveling.


C) where the ecliptic is.


D) where the comet came from.


E) the direction of the Sun.

E

Which statement about asteroids is NOT true?


A) Some have satellites of their own.


B) Earthgrazers can cross not only our orbit, but even those of Venus and Mercury.


C) Their images become blurry due to outgassing as the Sun heats them up.


D) They vary considerably in composition, reflectivity, and size.


E) Most stay between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

C

True or False: In some cases, we have seen extrasolar planets pass in front of their stars.

True

True or False: Due to their great masses, all four jovian worlds are much denser than the Earth.

False

True or False: All the terrestrial planets lie inside the asteroid belt.

True

Density is defined as


A) size divided by weight.


B) mass per unit volume.


C) weight divided by the planet's radius.


D) weight per square inch.


E) mass times weight

B

True or False: The fact that we don't see very many Earthlike planets in orbit around other stars is an indication that Earthlike planets are rare.

False

Planets with orbital semimajor axes less than 0.1 AU are called ________.

hot

Which of the following are the jovian planets?


A) only Jupiter


B) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto


C) only Jupiter and Saturn


D) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune only


E) everything past Mars and the asteroid belt

D

The Trojan asteroids are found


A) sixty degrees ahead or behind Jupiter, sharing its orbit about the Sun.


B) closer on average to the Sun than is the Earth.


C) beyond Neptune, with orbits similar to Pluto's.


D) orbiting around the Kuiper Belt body Hector.


E) with the others, between Mars and Jupiter; their red color gives them their name.

A

Meteor showers are


A) usually annual events, as the orbits again intersect.


B) caused by the Earth passing near the orbit of an Earthgrazing asteroid.


C) caused by the Earth passing near the orbit of an old short-period comet.


D) Both A and B are correct.


E) Both A and C are correct.

E

True or False: One characteristic of the terrestrial planets is their extensive moon systems.

False

As the solar nebula contracts, it


A) loses angular momentum.


B) cools due to condensation.


C) flattens out into the ecliptic plane around the Sun's poles.


D) reverses its direction of rotation.


E) spins faster due to conservation of angular momentum.

E

All planets lie in orbits close to the ________ plane.

ecliptic

In composition, the ________ planets have rocky materials like the asteroids.

terrestrial

The ________ is the spherical outgassing as a comet nucleus is heated by the Sun.

coma

When strong solar wind storms are diverted poleward by our magnetic fields, we often observe ________ in the ionosphere.

auroras

The greenhouse effect always results in a(n) ________ surface temperature.

hotter

True or False: The Earth's hotter, inner core is liquid and its cooler, outer core is solid.

False

In what part of our atmosphere do we live?


A) mesosphere


B) exosphere


C) ionosphere


D) stratosphere


E) troposphere

E

The dominant dark features on the near side of the Moon are the ________

mare

The presence of a magnetic field is a good indication that


A) the Earth's interior must be completely molten to the center.


B) the Earth's interior is similar to Mercury's, as both have fields.


C) the Earth's interior has had time to solidify, with a rigid bar magnet created.


D) the Earth has a liquid metal outer core, spinning rapidly as it rotates.


E) a huge iron meteorite lies somewhere high up in the mantle, not in the core.

D

What is true of the Moon's orbital and rotational periods?


A) The orbital period is greatest at full moon.


B) The orbital period is longer.


C) The rotational period is longer.


D) They are equal.


E) The rotational period varies with the Moon's phase.

D

Which of these age ranges best describes the lunar maria?


A) 100 - 65 million years


B) 2.5 - 1.0 billion years


C) 3.9 - 3.2 billion years


D) 8.6 - 6.0 billion years


E) a few million years to present lava flows seen eruptin

C

Dominating the lunar ________, craters are the result of asteroid and comet impacts.

highlands

True or False: Compared to Earth, the Moon lacks a hydrosphere, atmosphere, and a magnetosphere.

True

In noting that the Earth is "differentiated," we mean that


A) the density of oceanic basalt is less than that of granite on the mountain tops.


B) the Earth is very different than any other planet we study.


C) the density increases as you descend downward toward the core.


D) the radioactive heating in the core is increasing with time.


E) the Earth's magnetic field varies at different locations on the globe.

C

Without the greenhouse effect operating in our atmosphere,


A) the Earth would have become much more like Venus long ago.


B) the ice in the polar regions would have melted long ago.


C) Earth would have an average temperature of -23 degrees Celsius.


D) we would not have to worry about any warming problems in the future.


E) the ozone layer would not be weakening.

C

True or False: The crust on the near side of the Moon is on average thinner than the crust on the far side, due to our tidal pull on the Moon.
True

The critical part of the atmosphere for protecting life on the ground from excessive ultraviolet radiation is the


A) ozone layer.


B) troposphere.


C) hydrosphere.


D) stratosphere.


E) ionosphere.

A

At what phase are the tides least noticeable?


A) waning gibbous


B) waxing crescent


C) third quarter


D) new moon


E) full moon

C

The major presence of water detected on the Moon is in


A) the flows of mud seen on the walls of some craters.


B) the floors of deep craters in the polar regions, as ice deposits that never thaw.


C) the mare.


D) the puffs of steam seen coming from some still active lunar volcanoes.


E) faint clouds of ice in the thin lunar atmosphere.

B
To map the Earth's interior, we rely on ________ waves created by earthquakes.
seismic

After the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) crashed into the moon, its sister spacecraft LCROSS detected an amount of water in the ejecta


A) comparable to dried-up lake beds on Earth.


B) comparable to soggy ground on Earth.


C) less than is contained in desert sand on Earth.


D) comparable to fertile soil on Earth.


E) Actually, no water was detected at all.

C

Today, an average lunar moonquake releases about as much energy as


A) an atomic bomb.


B) a firecracker.


C) a major U.S. city uses in 1 year.


D) the most powerful earthquake ever recorded.


E) the Mount St. Helens eruption.

B
The difference in the Moon's gravitational force on the near and far sides of the Earth produces a(n) ________.
tidal bulge

At what phase would you expect to find extremely high and low tides?


A) full moon


B) first and third quarter


C) new moon


D) both new and full moons


E) Moon phases do not impact the tides.

D

What is true of the lunar highlands?


A) They are the darker regions of the Moon seen with the naked eye.


B) They are younger than the darker mare.


C) They are less heavily cratered than the mare.


D) They are the oldest part of the lunar surface.


E) They are found on the Moon's northern hemisphere.

D

The ________ Theory is now the most popular to explain the Moon's origin.
impact

True or False: In most places on the seacoast, there are two high and two low tides a day.

True

Earth's magnetic field


A) is a remnant of the solar nebula's magnetic field.


B) is weakening the Van Allen radiation belts.


C) is the force behind plate tectonics.


D) prevents charged particles in the solar wind from reaching the surface.


E) lines intersect the atmosphere at the equator.

D

The average rate of erosion on the Moon is far less than on Earth because


A) the crust of the Moon is much denser than the Earth's crust.


B) the Moon's mare long ago dried up, so there is no more wave erosion there.


C) the Moon lacks wind, water, and an atmosphere.


D) the Moon's magnetic field protects it from the solar wind better than ours does.


E) the Moon is much younger than the Earth.

C