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395 Cards in this Set
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Question

Answer


_____ is statement of how two or more _____are expected to relate to each other. a. A theory, hypotheses b. A hypothesis, theories c. A hypothesis, variables d. A compatibility test, variables

c. A hypothesis, variables


1. On a normal curve, which of the following are the same? a. Mean, fifth stanine, fiftieth percentile b. Median, zero zscore, Tscore of 50 c. Deviation I! of 100, cumulative percentage of 50, mode d. All of the above

d. All of the above


____ is the process of assessing or estimating attributes includes the use of a survey, observations, testing, clinical interviews

apprasial


2. An experiment with multiple variables would use which strategy to analyze the results? a. Anova b. Phi c. Goodness of fit d. Point Biserial

a. Anova


2. Instances where all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected are known as: a. simple random samples b. probability samples c. stratified samples d. statistical samples

a. simple random samples


3. The larger the size of the samples taken from a population, the more likely that: a. the statistic will be an accurate estimate of the population parameter b. we will obtain identical statistics and parameters c. we will obtain an accurate picture of the variation within the samples d. our study will become very expensive

a. the statistic will be an accurate estimate of the population parameter


3. Which type of research involves three (3) independent variables and six (6) dependent variables? a. Experimental research b. Descriptive research c. Variable analysis d. Sociogram

a. Experimental research


4. If a measure yields the same result consistently, we think of it as a ________ measure: a. valid b. reliable c. handy d. predictable

b. reliable


4. Which of the following validity's would be the most difficult to establish? a. Construct b. Predictive c. Criterion d. Concurrent

a. Construct


5. A measure has ______ validity if it corresponds with behavior that it is supposed to be associated with: a. content b. face c. predictive d. discrete

c. predictive


____ ___ test are also called “free response” (e.g. short answer test) the person taking the test can respond in any manner he or she chooses

free choice


6. To minimize the effects of an experimenter affecting the research results, we can use a: a. placebo b. a doubleblind study c. random assignment d. an experimental design

b. a doubleblind study


7. One advantage of content analysis is that: a. it is clearly superior to other methods of research for testing hypotheses about various forms of communication b. it requires little knowledge of the social sciences and is therefore easy to conduct c. it can be conducted with a relatively small expenditure of time, money, and person power d. the researcher can make a few mistakes in the coding of the data without affecting research findings

c. it can be conducted with a relatively small expenditure of time, money, and person power


7. Starting with the table of random numbers, the researcher selects name #12 on the list, and then names #24, 36, 48, etc. until she has collected a sample of 20 adults. This type of sampling is a. simple random. b. stratified random. c. cluster random. d. systematic random.

d. systematic random.


8. Measures of central tendency do not include: a. the mode b. median c. mean d. standard deviation

d. standard deviation


8. While taking the pretest, some students may have improved their ability to discriminate among shapes due to a. maturation. b. history. c. subject attrition. d. testing.

d. testing.


9. In frequency distribution, we are: a. displaying the number of cases that fall in categories b. showing the connections between descriptive statistics c. examining the central tendencies of variables d. testing out our coding schemes

a. displaying the number of cases that fall in categories


9. In a study, patients were given a brochure telling them about the experimental treatment they were to receive. The brochure called the treatment "highly promising, but experimental." The control group was not given a brochure. If the experimental group reports greater improvement than the control group because of the brochure rather than the treatment, which type of researcher enor accounts for this? a. Experimenter effect b. Halo effect c. Hawthorne effect d. Novelty effect

c. Hawthorne effect


10. As a measure of dispersion, a _________ tells us how far the mean is from individual scores: a. range b. standard deviation c. mode d. regular distribution

b. standard deviation


10. In October, a ninth grade class took a standardized achievement test. Frank's grade equivalent score was 9.3. Linda's grade equivalent score was 11.6. It is true that a. Linda performed as well as the average eleventh grader in the sixth month of the junior year. b. Linda should be considered to be gifted. c. Frank performed at an average level. d. Frank's score is more subject to error of measurement than is Linda's score.

c. Frank performed at an average level.


11. A Pearson’s r of .20 has been calculated for the relationship between two variables, X and J. What can be said: a. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the opposite direction to a very small degree. b. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the same direction to a very small degree. c. This is s relationship where as X increases, J also increases to a significant degree. d. This is a relationship where there is no connection at all between X and J.

a. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the opposite direction to a very small degree.


11. The correlation coefficient between two tests is found to be 1.93. It can be stated that a. the variables measured by the two tests are positively related. b. the variables measured by the two tests are negatively related. c. the variables measured by the two tests are not related. d. an error has been made in computation.

d. an error has been made in computation.


____ tests point out highs and lows between a single individual example: “Mr. Johnson’s anxiety is improving”

ipsative


12. Given the following data (10, 20, 30, 45, 58, 58, 66), the mean is_____ and the standard deviation is _____ a. 41, 19.7 b. 43, 24 c. 58, 5.6 d. 41, 24

a. 41, 19.7


12. One group was taught statistics in lecture and the other group was taught by programmed instruction. All subjects were given the same achievement tests at the end of the instruction so that the differences in effectiveness between the two methods of instruction could be compared. The statistical procedure most appropriate to this study is a. Compute a correlation coefficient b. Ttest c. Chisquare d. Divide scores into stanines

b. Ttest


13. An independent variable is a: a. theoretical concept b. variable influencing other variables c. variable influenced by other variables d. set attributes e. either b or c depending upon the variable

b. variable influencing other variables


13. Randomly selected individuals were asked whether they were married or not and whether they had ever received counseling. They were permitted to respond "yes" or "no" to each question. The most appropriate statistic to use in reporting the results of this study would be a. Correlation coefficient. b. Ttest. c. Chisquare d. WISCR

c. Chisquare


14. Techniques used to create reliable measures include: a. asking only about things respondents are likely to know the answer to b. using measures that have proved their reliability in previous research c. being clear about what you’re asking d. asking about things relevant to respondents e. all of the above

e. all of the above


15. A common first step in doing field research is: a. considering ethics b. forming a hypothesis c. constructing a theory d. deciding on level of participation e. reviewing literature

e. reviewing literature


16. A .05 level of significance means that: a. there is only a 5% chance that the statistic’s value could be obtained as a result of sampling errors only b. one is 50% certain that the sample value is representative of the population c. there is only a 5% chance that the variables tested are not independent d. the results can be accepted because the sampling error is only 5% e. the level of confidence is only 5%

a. there is only a 5% chance that the statistic’s value could be obtained as a result of sampling errors only


____ tests are designed to evaluate the level of mastery with a time limit purposely set up so that nobody finishes it (e.g. typing tes

timed


____ tests are designed to evaluate the level of mastery without a time limit ideally designed so that nobody receives a perfect score

power


____ forms also known as “equivalent forms”

parallel


_____ is the MOST IMPORTANT factor in test construction – a test must measure what it purports to measure

validity


____ ___also called “rational validity” or “logical validity”

content validity


___ ___refers to a test’s ability to measure a theoretical construct like intelligence, selfesteem, feelings, artistic talent, mechanical ability, or managerial potential

construct validity


___ ___ is extent to which a test measures an abstract trait or psychological notion

construct validity


___ ___ a method used to assess a test’s construct/criterion validity by correlating

convergent validity


____ ____ is a test to an independent or unrelated measure or trait

convergent validity


_____ validity is also known as “empirical validity” examples include GRE, ACT, SAT

predictive


____ validity reflects the test’s ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria

predicitive


____ validity is whether the test looks like it measures the intended trait/attribute test looks valid

face


_____ is the 2nd most important factor in test constuction

realbility


____ ____ measure consists of a standardized test that is split in half

split half


_____ _____ score is used with the standard binet test today mean is 100 with a standard deviation of 16

standard age


_____ ______ is flexible culture free and adjusts to the situation. it is also measured by content free reasoning

fluid intelligence


____ and _____ created the first intelligence test

stanford and binet


_____ testing began in world war I with army alpha and Army beta

group


_____ _____ measure an individuals interests work best with individuals who are of high school age or older

interest inventory


_____ tests measure a persons capacity or potiential in a given area

aptitude


Question

Answer


a ____ is an instrument which measures a given sample of behavior a systematic method of measuring a sample of behavior

test


An instrument that has fixed directions for the administration and scoring of the instrument is said to be: a. standardized b. valid c. reliable d. normreferenced

A. standardized


a ____ test relies mainly on the scorer’s opinion

subjective


An academic achievement test is developed to measure mastery of a multiplication table. Mastery is defined as getting 100% of the multiplication items correct. This instrument is an example of a: a. normreferenced test b. criterionreferenced test c. standardized test d. performance test

B. criterionreferenced test


a ____ ___ test is made up of recognition items (e.g. a multiple choice test like NCE)

forced choice


a ____ interpretation is one in which the individual’s score is evaluated by comparing it to others who took the same test

normative


a ____ ___ measures compare traits within the same individual does not reveal absolute strengths

ipsative test


An instructor announces that an examination will cover the topics of counseling theories and techniques. You spend hours studying both concepts, but all of the test questions are only on techniques. You might correctly conclude that the examination: a. lacked content validity b. lacked criterionrelated validity c. was not reliable d. all of the above

A. lacked content validity


a _____ test assesses potential and predicts future behavior

aptitude


______measures what a person knows, has mastered or learned (e.g. NCE)

achievement


Central tendency error refers to the tendency for individuals to: a. score near the mean. b. respond in the middle of the ratings on rating scales. c. prefer to give middle ratings rather than unfavorable ratings. d. answer correctly about 50% of the time.

B. respond in the middle of the ratings on rating scales.


____test measures various factors (e.g. math, science) during the same testing procedure

horizontal


A term that is sometimes used instead of intelligence is: a. achievement b. aptitude c. general ability d. selfefficacy

C. general ability


a ____ test includes versions for various age brackets or levels of education

vertical


______ refers to whether a test measures what it says it measures

validity


a test can not be valid yet still be_____

reliable


a valid test is always____

reliable


a ____ is any trait you cannot “directly” measure or observe

construct


_____ validity shows how well the test compares to other instruments that are intended for the same purpose

concurrent


______ refers to how a test measure an attribute

reliability


a test can be ______ but not ___

reliable valid


a reliable test is not always ____

valid


______ measures are more reliable than ______ ones

physical psychological


______ _______ of measure determines how accurate or innaccurate a test score is measured

standard error


______ is defined as giving the same test to the same group two times and then correlating the scores

test retest


______ refers to several raters that assess the same performance. It is also known as _____ ______

interrater scorer reliability


________ of ______ measures the percentage of share variance between two factors

coffiecient of determination


______ ______ validiation is a test that is administered to a new sample to examine the criterion validity in most cases the results indicate a shrinkage

cross validation


______ IQ is utilized today it compares a person to the norm the score indicates a deviation from the norm

deviation


_____ viewed intelliegence as primarily as primarily genetic a single or unitary factor/faculty

galton


________ intellegence is rigid and does not change or adapt it is measured by tests that focus on content

crystalized


______ refers to branch of psychology that focuses on testing in any form of mental testing

psychometrics


a ____ test is an association test that relies on free response format

projective


association, ________, and ________ are formats for projective tests

completion construction


______ tests are favored by psychodynamic therapists as it relies on the uncounscious mind

projective


______ ______ tests are guided by a specific theory example myers briggs based on jungarian

theory based


________ ____ tests are tests that analyze data outside of a given theory ex: cattals 16 personality factor questionaire

factor analytic


______ is the division of ACA that focuses on testing

Amecd


a _______ measures information acquistion or skill mastery

achievement test


achievment tests may be used for _________, _______ and remediation.

diagnosis placement


_________ refers to average performance considering the mean, median and mode

central tendency


a _________ describes what a student needs to do to attain a certan goal

behavioral objective


________ equals the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.

ratio IQ score


a ________ is a normal score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10

t score


a typing test is an example of a ________ _____

proficiency test


a set of unstuctured or ambiguious tasks used to assess personality is called ______ ______

projective battery


a ______ ______ is often used in career or vocational counseling

interest inventory


an informal observation of pupil behavior recorded by teachers in a clear an factual manner is called _______ ______

ancedotal report


a _____ _____ score of 4.2 means the student is doing as well as the average child in a second month of grade 4

grade placement


a ______ is an ordinal measure that tells the point on the distribution before which a given percentage of individual fall.

percentiles


Question

Answer


In considering the counseling process, assessment: a. primarily plays a role in the initial stage. b. primarily plays a role in evaluating the counseling. c. is an integral part of the entire process. d. is best considered as a separate process.

C. is an integral part of the entire process.


The correct order of the following scales of measurement, from least precise to most precise, is: a. ordinal, nominal interval, ratio b. nominal, interval, ordinal, ratio c. ordinal, nominal, ratio, interval d. nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

D. nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio


Normreferenced instruments are most useful for: a. determining if an individual has mastered certain material. b. establishing minimum levels of competence. c. comparing an individual's performance with other individuals. d. comparing performance to a standard.

C. comparing an individual's performance with other individuals.


on an _____ test opinion plays little or no part in the scoring process (e.g. NCE)

objective


In an experiment, assertive training was studied regarding its ability to help children reduce test anxiety. 5. What was the dependent variable? a. assertiveness b. anxiety level c. graduation d. training effectiveness

b. anxiety level


In an experiment, assertive training was studied regarding its ability to help children reduce test anxiety. 6. What is the independent variable? a. assertiveness b. anxiety level c. graduation d. training effectiveness

d. training effectiveness


in a ___ ____each item is independent of all other items can legitimately be compared to others who have taken the test

normative test


In a distribution of scores, what do we call the score that occurs most frequently? a. mean b. mode c. median d. standard deviation

B. mode


If the scores on a distribution are mostly high and the mean is lower than the median and mode, then the distribution would be called: a. positively skewed b. negatively skewed c. ordinally distributed d. normally distributed

B. negatively skewed


If there is no evidence of a relationship between two groups of test scores, the correlation between them will be closest to: a. 1.00 b. . 00 c. .50 d. 1.00

B. . 00


In evaluating an instrument’s reliability, a counselor should: a. always select the instrument with the highest reliability coefficients. b. select instruments where coefficient alphas have been calculated. c. consider how the instrument is going to be used. d. never use an instrument where the reliability coefficient is less than .92.

C. consider how the instrument is going to be used.


predictive validity is very important in _____ test

aptitude


The difference between concurrent and predictive validity is whether the: a. prediction is made in the current context or in the future. b. focus is on the normative sample or the content of the items. c. instrument is designed for adults or children. d. evidence is analyzed using regression or analysis of variance.

A. prediction is made in the current context or in the future.


on a ____ test the items get progressively more difficult

spiral


on a ____ test the questions go from easy one to more difficult

cyclical


If an individual has an elevated L Scale (Lie Scale) on the MMPI2, then the individual: a. has a tendency to consistently lie. b. did not lie on any of the questions. c. lied on almost all of the questions. d. attempted to “look good” while answering some of the questions.

D. attempted to “look good” while answering some of the questions.


In using assessment information in treatment planning, the counselor should: a. consider strategies that will provide needed information. b. incorporate relevant assessment information that may have been gathered previously. c. use multiple assessment devices. d. all of the above

D. all of the above


In order to interpret assessment results, a counselor needs to: a. have comprehensive knowledge of the client’s culture. b. determine the degree of acculturation and gather relevant background information. c. have detailed information about the instrument’s characteristics. d. all of the above

D. all of the above


content validity contains content drawn from the test _____

domain


In _____ ______ there is no significant correlation between construct being observed and other results the test will not reflect unrelated variables example: a straight A counseling student should score higher on the NCE than a student who flunked an basic counseling course

discriminant validity


Increasing a tests _____ raises relibility

length


the _____ _____ formula is used to estimate the impact that lengthening or shortening a test will have on a tests relability

spearman brown


reliability and validity are expressed in terms of ____ ______

correlation coefficients


coefficients of ______ represent a perfect correlation and _____ represents no correlation

1.00 and 0.00


the ___ the better on the standard error or measure a ___ score means high realibility

lower low


in test retest generally the second test takes place after waiting generally _____ days

7


in the _______ ______ measure a single group takes parellel forms of a test and a reliablity correlation coefficient is computed on the two sets of scores

alternate forms


the _____ _____ reliability asks the question is the performance of one item truely related to performance on another

internal consistancy


Internal consistency is measured by using the _______ _______ formula which is an alternative to the split half test method

kuder richardson


the _____ IQ formula is mental age divided by chronological age times 100 ratio IQ developed by stern

Binet


the ______ IQ test is a standardized test since the scoring and administration procedures are formal and well structured

stanfordbinet


The _____ IQ test is administed as an individual test.

wechsler


in a _____ test the test taker is shown netural stimuli. the test taker will _____ his or her personality

projective project


Interest tend to stablize around age ____

25


intersts and ______ are not highly correlated

highly


most intelligence test use a ______ or average score of 100.

mean


most _______ given in schools are paper and pencil tests

intelligence test


if a test has high _________ we can assume the test actually measures what it claims to measure

validity


KuderRichardson formula 20 is a mathematical formula used to estimate _________ or homogeneity.

internal consistency


in a sociogram, an unselected indivudual is refered to as _____

isolate


if scores pile up at one end of the distribution or the other it is said to be a ______ _______

skewed distribution


of the several types of validity, ______ refers to the extent to which measurements correlate with a particular criterion when both are measured at the same time, whereas ________ refers to the correlation between test scores on a particular criterion and later performance on the same criteron

concurrent validity predictive validity


the degree to which scores in one distribution explain scores in another distribution is referred to as _____ ____

shared variance


the ____ ____ a common rating error causes the rater to evaluate a subject based on an overall impression rather than one the particular trait in question

halo effect


the asvab is a ______ test

aptitude


the CAT is a _____ test

achievement


the GRE is a _____ test

aptitude


the GRE advanced tests is a _____ test

achievement


the kaufman assessment battery for children is a _____ test

intelligence


the Kuder test is a ______ test

interest


Question

Answer


What is the point on the scale that has an equal number of scores above and below it? a. median b. mean c. mode d. standard deviation

A. median


you cannot compare two or more people who have taken an ipsativetest the person is measured in response to his or her ___ ____ of behavior

own standards


Which of the following does not belong in the same category as the others? a. contentrelated validity b. criterionrelated validity c. constructrelated validity d. face validity

D. face validity


these are examples of _____ tests General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Law School Admission Test (LSAT) , all school selection/admission tests

aptitude


With a normreferenced instrument, it is important that the clinician evaluate: a. the size of the norming group. b. the suitability of the norming sample in terms of age, gender, ethnic makeup, socioeconomic representation, educational level, and geographic location. c. the procedures (e.g., random sample, cluster sample) used to select the norming sample. d. all of the above

D. all of the above


The most widelyused instrument that assesses depression is the: a. Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Depression InventoryII b. Hamilton Depression Inventory c. Minnesota Depression Scale d. Reynolds Depression Scale

A. Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Depression InventoryII


Which of the following is the most serious disadvantage of group intelligence or general ability tests? a. Too many items in a given total score. b. Group tests use only a single item format. c. Too little attention to the examinee’s motivation and/or anxiety levels. d. The time to administer group tests.

C. Too little attention to the examinee’s motivation and/or anxiety levels.


The most widely researched career counseling instrument is the: a. Career Assessment Inventory (CAI) b. Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (JVIS) c. Kuder General Interest Inventory (KGIS) d. Strong Interest Inventory

D. Strong Interest Inventory


The most widely employed method of personality assessment is: a. observation b. the MMPI2 c. structured interviews d. rating scales

A. observation


what are the types of criterionrelated validity:

concurrent validity, predictive validity


the wechsler IQ test asseses ____ skills. it yeals a verbal, _____ and full scale IQ scores

performance


weschler preschool and primary scale of intellegence is used with children ages ___ to ___

7Mar


the weschler adult intelligence scale is used with ages ____ and ____

16 and beyond


the most common type of _______ given in schools is a paper and pencil test

standardized test


the most frequency occuring score in a given distrubution is the _______

mode


the tendency for an individuals score to move closer to the mean on subseqent testing is known as ______ ____ _______

regression effect


the locus of control scales is a ______ test

personality


the manchover draw a person test is a _____ test

personality


the metropolitan is a _____ test

achievement


the miller analogies is a _____ test

aptitude


the MMPI is a _____ test

personality


the meyers briggs is a _____ test

personality


the NBCC is a _____ test

achievement


the NMHCC exam is a _____ test

achievement


the occupational interest survey is a ______ test

interest


the otis lennon is a ______ test

intelligence


the rorschach test is a _____ test

personality


the school and college ability test is a _____ test

aptitude


the selfdirected search is a ______ test

interest


the stanford binet test is a _____ test

intelligence


the strong campbell is a _____ test

interest


the teacher made unit test is a _____ test

achievement


the test of general ability test is a ______ test

intelligence


the thematic appercetion test is a _____ test

personality


WAIS test is a ____ test

intelliegence


On a standardized test, a group of clients achieved the following raw scores: 84, 85, 86, 86, 87, 87, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 92, 96, 97, 98. What is the modal score? a. 87 b. 88 c. 87.2 d. 84

A. 87


Standardized scores...

used to compare several different test scores for the SAME individual.


What are the two most commonly used standardized scores? and describe.

Zscore: mean is 0, SD is 1. The "z" in zscore should remind you of zero, which is the 'mean' of this distribution. Tscore: mean is 50 and SD is 0. "T" should remind you of 10 which is the SD. Negative scores are eliminated unlike the zscore.


Which of the following types of statistic enables the test administrator to account for chance variation in one's score by reporting a score band instead of a single number? a. measurement of central tendency b. range c. inferential statistics d. standard error of measurement

D. standard error of measurement


The correct order of the following scales of measurement, from least precise to most precise, is: a. ordinal, nominal interval, ratio b. nominal, interval, ordinal, ratio c. ordinal, nominal, ratio, interval d. nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

D. nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio


What is a correlation coefficient?

Ranges from 1 to +1. Shows a relationship between 2 sets of numbers. The correlation coefficient tells you nothing about the cause and effect, only the degree of relationship.


Which of the following statements best defines test bias? a. Differences must not exist between groups taking the test b. The goal is to develop tests that are free of cultural bias against any group that uses the test c. A test must be validated by demonstrating differences between the performance of groups. d. The test must have demonstrated meaning to the test take.

B. The goal is to develop tests that are free of cultural bias against any group that uses the test


Normreferenced instruments are most useful for: a. determining if an individual has mastered certain material. b. establishing minimum levels of competence. c. comparing an individual's performance with other individuals. d. comparing performance to a standard.

C. comparing an individual's performance with other individuals.


The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education has as its purpose: a. translating testing information to a lay public. b. to protect copyrighted material. c. the delivery of academic training for counselors. d. All of the above.

D. All of the above.


Which of the following statements best reflects contemporary psychometric understanding of the concept of intelligence? a. Intelligence is not a single, unitary ability, but a composite of several functions. b. Intelligence is a single, unified trait of behavior. c. Intelligence measures cultural patterns that endure. d. Intelligence tends to decrease with age, particularly if correlated with experience.

A. Intelligence is not a single, unitary ability, but a composite of several functions.


What is standard error of measurement (SEM)?

Another measure of reliability and useful in interpreting the test scores of an individual. Helps determine the range within an individual's test score probably falls. ie. Person scores a 92 on a test. The SEM=50. Chances are 23 (67%) that the person's score falls between 87 and 97.


One hundred people take a test. The average score is 75%. You score 80% and feel like you failed, but you feel much better when you realize your PR is 95. Which of the following statements about your score is correct? a. You correctly answered 9.5 out of ever 10 items. b. You scored one standard deviation above the mean. c. You scored at or better than 95 people taking the exam. d. You scored in the seventh stanine.

C. You scored at or better than 95 people taking the exam.


Which of the following MISREPRESENTS the intent of communicating assessment results with a client? a. encourage client's own interpretations b. reveal the strengths/weaknesses of the test c. relay your expertise as a diagnostician d. relate the results to other available information about the client

C. relay your expertise as a diagnostician


The concept that describes the counselor's responsibilities for telling clients what will be done with test results and who will use them, plus specifies that permission by the test taker must be granted for new uses of test results is a. right of privacy b. informed consent c. confidentiality d. apriori usage

B. informed consent


Validity

does the test measure what it's supposed to measure and how well


Which of the following is NOT recognized as a common problem in psychological report writing? a. overuse of jargon b. focus on the individual c. poor organization of the report d. all of the above.

B. focus on the individual


What measure of central tendency would be most influenced by extreme scores? a. mean b. median c. mode d. all of the above.

A. mean


Which of the following does not belong in the same category as the others? a. contentrelated validity b. criterionrelated validity c. constructrelated validity d. face validity

D. face validity


The most widely used statistic of variability in measurement is the a. range b. standard deviation c. semiinterquartile range d. all of the above.

B. standard deviation


The mental functioning of Army recruits during World War I was assessed by the a. Army Alpha b. StanfordBinet c. Otis Absolute Point Scale d. Army General Classification Test

A. Army Alpha


The first widely used nonverbal group test of intelligence was the a. Army Alpha b. Army Beta c. Otis Absolute Point Scale d. Leiter International Performance Scale

B. Army Beta


Reliability can be conceptualized as the degree to which a. test scores are free from errors of measurement. b. test items compare to what is being taught. c. the test conflates with other tests measuring the same constructs. d. the test results avoid false negative and false positive classification.

A. test scores are free from errors of measurement.


The most widelyused instrument that assesses depression is the: a. Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Depression InventoryII b. Hamilton Depression Inventory c. Minnesota Depression Scale d. Reynolds Depression Scale

A. Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Depression InventoryII


Which of the following is the most serious disadvantage of group intelligence or general ability tests? a. Too many items in a given total score. b. Group tests use only a single item format. c. Too little attention to the examinee’s motivation and/or anxiety levels. d. The time to administer group tests.

C. Too little attention to the examinee’s motivation and/or anxiety levels.


The most widely researched career counseling instrument is the: a. Career Assessment Inventory (CAI) b. Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (JVIS) c. Kuder General Interest Inventory (KGIS) d. Strong Interest Inventory

D. Strong Interest Inventory


The reliability of a test will probably be increased if the test developed a. selects homogeneous samples in the standardization. b. includes a wide variety of types of items. c. increases the length of the test. d increases the number of individuals in the standardization.

C. increases the length of the test.


The most widely employed method of personality assessment is: a. observation b. the MMPI2 c. structured interviews d. rating scales

A. observation


The multiaptitude battery developed by the U.S. Employment Service is the a. ASVAB b. DAT c. GATB d. FACT

C. GATB


what are the 4 types of data?

nominal ordinal interval ratio


Tests such as the Graduate Record Examination and College admissions tests can be classified as
A. general aptitude batteries. B. specialized aptitude tests. C. scholastic aptitude tests. D. intelligence tests. 
C. scholastic aptitude tests.


What personality inventory is used to assess normal personality dimensions concerning an examinee's typical behavior patterns? a. Edwards Personal Preference Inventory b. California Psychological Inventory c. Eysenck Personality Inventory d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

B. California Psychological Inventory


What are neurophsychological assessment instruments used for? a. To test for brain damage b. To test for genetic tendencies c. To test for neuroticism d. To test for psychomotor abilities

A. To test for brain damage


what are the three Measures of central tendency

mean median mode


The ___ ___ effect AKA Compensatory rivalry of a comparison group –when a group is motivated to improve its performance in the study, so that it does not really represent their normal performance

john henry


standard deviation is a measure of _______

variability


the measures of central tendency include _____ _____ and _____

mean median mode


population ______ are the characteristics of the larger group while ___ refers to the characteristics of the sample

parameters statistics


to compare the mean of two groups, the _______ should be used.

ttest


when two or more groups are being compared, the omnibus ______ can be used to determine if any significant differences exist

f test


when ______ _____ sampling is used each member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen

simple random


the calculated and critical t values are compared to determine whether or not to reject the ____ _____

null hypothesis


when all the elements of the population cant be enumerated _______ samples must be used to select subjects

nonprobability


when more than one independent variable is manipulated, factorial research designs are used to analyze main effects as well as _______ ______

interaction effects


one measure of dispersion, ______ tells the difference between the highest and lowest values in the distribution

range


the ______ research design occurs with three or four groups

solomon


the ______ coefficient of correlation for rank ordered data

spearman


Question

Answer


In considering the counseling process, assessment: a. primarily plays a role in the initial stage. b. primarily plays a role in evaluating the counseling. c. is an integral part of the entire process. d. is best considered as a separate process.

C. is an integral part of the entire process.


Describe RELIABILITY.

Reliability is the consistency of a test/measure. The degree to which the test can be expected to provide similar results for the SAME subjects on repeated administrations. Can be viewed as the extent to which a measure is free from error. If the coefficient is high, ie. .70 or higher, the test scores have little error and is said to be reliable.


Describe the types of reliability.

Stability: testretest reliability obtained using the same instrument on both occationssame group tested twice. Equivalence: alternate forms of the same test given to the same group. How comparable the tests are will influence reliability. Internal Consistency: split half method. Test is divided into 2 halves and calculated.


Most wellknown intelligence tests tend to measure a. the affective or conative domain. b. numerical abilities, specifically computation. c. learning that occurs beyond the classroom. d. largely verbal abilities.

C. learning that occurs beyond the classroom.


Describe Validity.

Validity is the degree to which a test measures what it says. Most Important. Valid tests are reliable.


Describe Face Validity.

The test/instrument LOOKS or appears to measure the intended attribute.


If the scores on a distribution are mostly high and the mean is lower than the median and mode, then the distribution would be called: a. positively skewed b. negatively skewed c. ordinally distributed d. normally distributed

B. negatively skewed


If there is no evidence of a relationship between two groups of test scores, the correlation between them will be closest to: a. 1.00 b. . 00 c. .50 d. 1.00

B. . 00


Normal distribution

based on bell shaped curve 1.00  1.00 SD = 68.2% 2.00  2.00 SD = 95.4% 3.00  3.00 SD  99.7%


Most educational and psychological tests utilize which scale of measurement? a. interval b. nominal c. ordinal d. ratio

A. interval


In constructing his test of mental ability, which of these functions would Binet consider most important? a. Sensory activities b. Simple specialized abilities c. Judgment and reasoning d. Perceptual speed

C. Judgment and reasoning


Central tendency error refers to the tendency for individuals to: a. score near the mean. b. respond in the middle of the ratings on rating scales. c. prefer to give middle ratings rather than unfavorable ratings. d. answer correctly about 50% of the time.

B. respond in the middle of the ratings on rating scales.


John made a score of 100 on a test that had a standard error of measurement of 4 points. What is the probability of his true scoring falling between 92 and 108? a. 34 out of 100 b. 68 out of 100 c. 95 out of 100 d. 995 out of 1,000

C. 95 out of 100


If an individual has an elevated L Scale (Lie Scale) on the MMPI2, then the individual: a. has a tendency to consistently lie. b. did not lie on any of the questions. c. lied on almost all of the questions. d. attempted to “look good” while answering some of the questions.

D. attempted to “look good” while answering some of the questions.


In using assessment information in treatment planning, the counselor should: a. consider strategies that will provide needed information. b. incorporate relevant assessment information that may have been gathered previously. c. use multiple assessment devices. d. all of the above

D. all of the above


In order to interpret assessment results, a counselor needs to: a. have comprehensive knowledge of the client’s culture. b. determine the degree of acculturation and gather relevant background information. c. have detailed information about the instrument’s characteristics. d. all of the above

D. all of the above


the ___ is the Middle score in a list of scores arranged from lowest to highest

median


the ____ is the Arithmetic average

mean


the ___ is the Most frequently occurring score.

mode


The____ is the most familiar and commonly used measure, but if there are extreme scores the ____ may be more accurate.

mean Median


the ____ is the Highest score minus the lowest score

range


the ___ ____ is the most commonly used measure of variability

standard deviation


the _____ is the horizontal axis or abscissa

x axis


the ___ is the vertical axis or ordinate

y axis


The ___ ____ allows us to predict the proportion of the populations whose score or measurement will fall within a certain range; therefore it can be used as a measure of ______

normal curve probability


The x axis on a normal curve represents the score or measure of ____ (e.g, IQ, exam score, etc.)

interest


The y axis on a normal curve represents the _____ of a particular score in the population

frequency


The curve is ______; the peak of the curve represents the mean, median and mode (these scores are all the same in a normal distribution)

symmetrical


Raw scores often must be converted to ____scores in order for the bell curve to be useful. .

standard


Some common standard scores are IQ: Mean __; SD 15 or 16 (depending on the test)

100


tscores in a normal distribution would be expressed as : Mean __, SD 10

50


The _____ range is the difference between the first quartile and the third quartile and serves as a measure of _____

interquartile variability


The semiinterquartile range is ____ of the interquartile range.

one half


The ____ hypothesis is A statement that the IV will affect the DV; may be stated as such or may be assumed as the counterpart to the null hypothesis

experimental


Level of ___ Represents the probability that a difference between the two groups is due to chance. The value of p is set before the study is done

significance or "p"


in a ____ the data is converted to a tscore. The tscore must exceed a critical t value at the stated probability level p in order to be considered statistically significant

t test


The most common nonparametric test is the _____

chisquare


Correlation between nonparametric data is expressed with _____ rho and Kendall’s tau.

spearman


The____ effect occurs when a trait that is not being studied influences a researcher’s rating on the trait being studied

halo


The_____ effect is when the investigator’s feelings toward the subject influence the outcome.

roesnthal


The _____effect occurs when subjects change their behavior simply because they know they are being studied.

hawthorne


in research, a variable that is consequence of an antecendent variable called a ________

dependent


if the ________ is set at 0.1 , the results of the study would be because of change rather than treatment less than 1 time out of 100

level of signficance


maturation, regression, and expermental mortality are examples of threats to ___ ____

internal validity


interval and ratio data are ______ _____, and nominal and ordinal are _____ data

quantitative data qualitative


in _______ ____ research, the independent variable is not within the control of the researcher

expost facto


in general, ______ is theory oriented and _______ is outcome oriented

research evaualtion


experimental research is designed for hypothesis testing, whereas ________ research seeks to determine what exists.

descriptive


Question

Answer


An instrument that has fixed directions for the administration and scoring of the instrument is said to be: a. standardized b. valid c. reliable d. normreferenced

A. standardized


I

Investigative thinkers solve problems with intelligence avoid close personal contact scientist, mathematicial


An academic achievement test is developed to measure mastery of a multiplication table. Mastery is defined as getting 100% of the multiplication items correct. This instrument is an example of a: a. normreferenced test b. criterionreferenced test c. standardized test d. performance test

B. criterionreferenced test


Chisquared

significance of differences between two or more groups of subjects, objects, or events that fall into defined categories by comparing observed frequencies with expected frequencies


Crystallized Intelligence

experience & education increased over time


in _____ four group design Two experimental groups and two control groups; only one of each is pretested.

solomns


Conclusion validity

asks the question  is there a relationship between two variables?


in a ____ ____ design: Same subjects are pretested, an IV introduced, then they are posttested.

within subjects


in a ____ ____ design Different groups are measured.

between subjects


Internal validity

refers to the question  assuming there is a relationship between variables, is it a causal one?


Construct Validity

looks at the question  did I measure what I thought I measured? Assuming a relationship, and it is causal, did your progrm reflect our idea of the contrcut of the program and did our measure reflect the idea of our construct?


External validity

generalizability


A term that is sometimes used instead of intelligence is: a. achievement b. aptitude c. general ability d. selfefficacy

C. general ability


An instrument that has fixed directions for the administration and scoring of the instrument is said to be a. standardized. b. valid. c. reliable. d. normreferenced.

A. standardized.


Item analysis

process for evaluating single test items for easiness and or difficulty levels, and whether the inem descrimiates the learners from the nonlearners


In a survey, ___ subjects or a 50 – 75% return rate is desirable.

100


A personality inventory that is designed to test the DSMIV categories is the a. Eysenck Personality Inventory. b. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. c. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory d. Thematic Apperception Test

C. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory


Multiaxial assessment

1. AXIS I: Used to record clinical disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention (formerly known as VCodes). 2. AXIS II: Used to code Mental Retardation, the Personality Disorders and Borderline Intellectual Functioning. Axis II may also be used to record prominent maladaptive personality traits and habitual defense mechanisms. (In DSMIIIR, Axis II was also used to record Pervasive and Specific Developmental Disorders.) 3. AXIS III: Used to record general medical conditions that may be relevant to the understanding or management of the client's mental disorder. 4. AXIS IV: Used to code psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the client's mental disorder. In DSMIV, a severity rating is not given; the problems are simply listed. 5. AXIS V: Used to note the clinician's judgment of the client's overall level of functioning. This can be done using a Global Assessment of Functioning Scale.


Most statistical operations require ___ or ____ data

interval ratio


Important component Treatment for delirium

an environment that is designed to minimize disorentation. (quiet room with appropriate lighting).


mixed state

simultaneous depression and mania


Hypomanic Episode

Persistent elevated, expansive, or irritable mood insufficient in severity to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning. A symptom of a number of disorders, including Cyclothymic Disorder and Bipolar II Disorder.


ID

According to Freud, the aspect of the personality present at birth, that operates according to the pleasure principle; characterized by a desire for immediate gratification of sexual and aggressive impulses.


Measures of ______ describe how individual scores deviate from the central tendency. .

variance


Correlation is described in terms of ____ (positive or negative) and _____

direction magnitude


Histograms/ Bar graphs Line graphs are examples of ____ _____

frequency distributions


in a ______ distribution the Mean, median and mode are not equal

skewed


in a ____skew alarger number of HIGH scores; the “hump” is top the right and the “tail” is to the left. Mode score>median score>mean score

negative


a ____ distribution is Flatter than a normal curve

Platykurtic


a ____ distribution is Taller than a normal curve

Leptokurtic


A ____ _____ is a statement that there will be no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group, i.e., that the IV will have no effect on the DV

null hypothesis


A ____ ttest tests the hypothesis that a difference between group will be in a particular direction e.g., Group A will score higher than Group B).

one tailed


A _____ ttest will test the hypothesis that will be a difference, with no direction stated.

two tailed


_______ means to interpret the results in the simpliest way

parsimony


______ pioneered in hypothesis testing

fisher


______ scales are interval scales with an absolute zero point

ratio


a ______ scale places objects or individuals into categories.

nominal


a researcher whose study involves manipulation of the independent variable in a controlled setting is conducting _____ ______

experimental research


a theory that explains events in the simplest form possible and has fewer complexities and assumptions is said to be ______

parsimonous


_______ refers to strength of the relationship between two variables

correlation


_______ _______ test a relationship between treatment and outcome

inferential statistics


________ research may be either descriptive or ex post facto

survey


_______ is associated with cumulative scales

gutman


_______ is associated with an experimental effect that threatens internal validity

hawthorne


______ is associated with product moment coefficient of correlation for linear, interval data

pearson


______ is an experimental effect in which some characteristic or behavior or the experimenter influences the subjects behavior

rosenthal


_______ is asssociated with Q methodology

stephenson


_______ is equalappearing interval scales

thurstone


_______ is a post hoc multiple comparison test

tukey


Question

Answer


1. _____ is statement of how two or more _____are expected to relate to each other. a. A theory, hypotheses b. A hypothesis, theories c. A hypothesis, variables d. A compatibility test, variables

c. A hypothesis, variables


2. Instances where all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected are known as: a. simple random samples b. probability samples c. stratified samples d. statistical samples

a. simple random samples


3. The larger the size of the samples taken from a population, the more likely that: a. the statistic will be an accurate estimate of the population parameter b. we will obtain identical statistics and parameters c. we will obtain an accurate picture of the variation within the samples d. our study will become very expensive

a. the statistic will be an accurate estimate of the population parameter


______ Involves manipulation of a variable (IV, independent variable) which is expected to have an effect on some other variable (DV, dependent variable)

experimental


4. If a measure yields the same result consistently, we think of it as a ________ measure: a. valid b. reliable c. handy d. predictable

b. reliable


A true _____ design uses random sampling and controls for other (confounding or extraneous) variables

experimental


5. A measure has ______ validity if it corresponds with behavior that it is supposed to be associated with: a. content b. face c. predictive d. discrete

c. predictive


_____research is generally regarded as the most “powerful” but is not always possible, ethical or practical in disciplines such as counseling.

experimental


6. To minimize the effects of an experimenter affecting the research results, we can use a: a. placebo b. a doubleblind study c. random assignment d. an experimental design

b. a doubleblind study


7. One advantage of content analysis is that: a. it is clearly superior to other methods of research for testing hypotheses about various forms of communication b. it requires little knowledge of the social sciences and is therefore easy to conduct c. it can be conducted with a relatively small expenditure of time, money, and person power d. the researcher can make a few mistakes in the coding of the data without affecting research findings

c. it can be conducted with a relatively small expenditure of time, money, and person power


______ research describes a trait or phenomenon but does not manipulate it

descriptive


9. In frequency distribution, we are: a. displaying the number of cases that fall in categories b. showing the connections between descriptive statistics c. examining the central tendencies of variables d. testing out our coding schemes

a. displaying the number of cases that fall in categories


11. A Pearson’s r of .20 has been calculated for the relationship between two variables, X and J. What can be said: a. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the opposite direction to a very small degree. b. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the same direction to a very small degree. c. This is s relationship where as X increases, J also increases to a significant degree. d. This is a relationship where there is no connection at all between X and J.

a. This is a relationship where as X increases or decreases, J goes in the opposite direction to a very small degree.


13. An independent variable is a: a. theoretical concept b. variable influencing other variables c. variable influenced by other variables d. set attributes e. either b or c depending upon the variable

b. variable influencing other variables


a _____ Consists of all members of a group, e.g., all 18yearold girls in Louisiana

population


14. Techniques used to create reliable measures include: a. asking only about things respondents are likely to know the answer to b. using measures that have proved their reliability in previous research c. being clear about what you’re asking d. asking about things relevant to respondents e. all of the above

e. all of the above


a ____ is a subset of a population, e.g, 100 18yearold girls from a particular geographic region.

sample


15. A common first step in doing field research is: a. considering ethics b. forming a hypothesis c. constructing a theory d. deciding on level of participation e. reviewing literature

e. reviewing literature


Achievement

the degree to which one has achieved on a standardized test. used primarily in education, designed to evaluate a person's current state of knowledge of skill  NCE


____sampling: Ensures that the sample mirrors the demographics of the population (e.g., age, race, income level, etc.)

Stratified


______ is the degree to which individual scores are spread out or clustered together

variability


_____is the relationship between two variables, usually represented by the Pearson correlation coefficient “r”.

correlation


a ___ ____ is a representation of the central tendencies and variances of a measure as they occur in a population.

normal curve


_____ scores all have a defined mean and a defined standard deviation

standard


____ are Essentially the same thing as standard deviation; mean is zero, SD is 1

z scores


_____ Divide the distribution into 9 equal intervals with 5 as the means

stanines


____ scores: Indicate the percent of subjects whose score falls below an individual score

percentile


_____scores divide the distribution in quarters. The 1st quartile score has 25% of the scores below it; the 2nd quartile has 50% of the scores below it, etc

quartile


a ____ skew has a larger number of LOW scores; the “hump” of the curve would be to the left (negative end), and the “tail” to the right (positive end) of the x axis. Mean score>median score>mode score

positive


____ distributions includeTwo humps, like camel humps. Usually indicates that two distinct populations have been studied together.

bimodal


_____ statistics: Allow us to use sample data to make predictions about the population

inferential


____ are used when there is only one variable under study.

t tests


____ of _____ is used when there are two levels of the same IV, such as 30 minutes of relaxation training vs one hour of relaxation training.

analysis of variance anova


____ is used when there is more than one IV, such as relaxation training vs accupuncture.

manova (multivariate)


____ of _____ Used when there are multiple variables that cannot be eliminated; it measures the amount of influence each variable has on the DV, and statistically controls for extraneous variab

analysis of covariance


_____ is an expression of whether the IV truly affects the DV, as opposed to some other factor (maturation, learning or statistical regression, for example)

validity


_____ is an expression of whether the results can be replicated. A measurement can be reliable without being valid.

reliability


____ error (Alpha error): is rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true

type 1


____ error (Beta error): accepting the null hypothesis when it is actually false The smaller the value of p, the lower the risk of a type I error, but the higher the risk of a Type II error. Both types are decreased by increasing the sample size.

type 2


______ data analysis: When the data under study are ordinal or nominal statistical tests are used to see if the distribution of obtained scores differs significantly from the expected (not exactly the normal) distribution – this is known as “goodness of fit”.

nonparametric


_____ _____ is conducted to advance our understanding of theory

basic research


____ summarizes a characteristic of a population

parameter


______ ____ is used for ordinal data

spearman rho


______ ______ has to do with the generalizablilty of the results of a study

external validity


_____ is associated with summated rating scales

likert


Question

Answer


____ ______describes phenomena in nonnumerical terms Methods include participantobserver, case study

qualitative research


_____ ______ research Involves measurement of some kind.

quantatitive research


______ _____ research does not use random sampling. Examples include existinggroups designs and ex post facto designs.

quasiexperimental


______ Describes a relationship between two phenomena but does not imply a causeandeffect relationship; does not control for confounding variables

correlation


_____ is essentially a case study involving a single subject.

N=1 design


____ sampling is the most scientifically rigorous; every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

random


_____ sampling uses existing structures such as school systems or clinic clients, and subjects are drawn from those structures.

convenience


____ ____ is important to the significance of the study

sample size


_____ data consists of naming categories of individuals or conditions, with no “value” attached

nominal


_____ data Arranges categories in order of lesser to greater, but the interval between categories is not uniform (e.g., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place in a contest)

Ordinal


____ data shows the difference in value between objects is uniform, but there is no real “zero” point. This kind of data can be added or subtracted, but not multiplied or divided.

interval


____ data shows the difference in value is uniform, and there is a true zero point. This data can be multiplied and divided as well as added or subtracted.

ratio


____ statistics: Describe some characteristic in a subject, sample, or population

descriptive


_____ Show correlation; the more widely dispersed the dots are, the less correlation

scatterplots
