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46 Cards in this Set

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Glucose w/ complete oxidation leads to how many ATP
38

(glucose --> 6 CO2)
Glucose --> pyruvate (aerobic) = how many ATP
8
How many pyruvates does 1 molecule glucose yield
2
FA oxidation = how many ATP
129
Regulatory enzyme in glycolysis which is inhibited by ATP or citrate
PFK-1
PFK-2 is ____ when phosphorylated
Inhibited
Glycogenolysis is regulated by what enzyme and when phosphorylated it is ____
Glycogenphosphorylase
Activated
In order for glycogen synthesis, ____ enzyme must be ____
Glycogen synthetase
Must not be phosphorylated
____ enzyme important in fat metabolism. _____ when phosphorylated
Hormone sensitive lipase
Activated
Cholesterol synthesis regulated by ____ enzyme, _____ when phosphorylated
HMG CoA reductase
Inhibited
Ketone bodies are synthesized by ____ enzyme
HMG CoA synthase
Citric acid cycle is regulated by _____ enzyme, _____ when phosphorylated
Pyruvate DH
Inhibited
Steroid hormones are all made from what
Cholesterol (27 C)
Mineralocorticoids are made in what adrenal zone
Zona glomerulosa
Glucocorticoids are made in what adrenal zone
Zona fasciculata
Androgens are made in what adrenal zone
Zona reticularis
Adrenal gland from exterior to interior
Glomerulosa --> Fasciculata --> Reticularis
What steroid H is made in Leydig cells in Testis
Testosterone & androstenedione
In a Male in the periphery what steroid H are made
Androstenedione --> estrone
Testosterone --> Estradiol & androgens
Androgens --> DHT
Theca cells in ovary make what steroid H
Testosterone
Granulosa cells in the ovary make what steroid H
Take Androgens and make estrogens
In F, peripheral metabolism of androgens & estrogens are made into what H
ESTRIOL
Corpus luteum makes what steroid H
Progesterone
17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency leads to a build up of what steroid H & clinical
Make a lot of mineralocorticoids
(No glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens)

M - ambiguous genitalia
F - primary amenorrhea at puberty
21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency leads to a build up of what steroid H & clinical
Excess progesterone, androgens, estrogens
(No mineralocorticoids or glucocorticoids)

M - precocious puberty
F - ambiguous genitalia
**Salt wasting**
11 beta hydroxylase deficiency leads to a build up of what steroid H & clinical
Excess 11-deoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoid activity), 11-deoxycortisol, androgen & estrogens
(No mineralocorticoids or glucocorticoids)

M - precocious puberty
F - ambiguous genitalia
Salt retention (HTN, hypokalemia)
Insulin has the main action of ____
Anabolism

-fat synthesis
-sugar uptake, glycolysis, glycogen synthesis
-protein synthesis
GH promotes
Protein synthesis (at expensive of fat & sugar)

-fat lysis
-GNG, glycogenolysis
-increased uptake AA in liver for GNG
Cortisol leads to ____ blood glucose & ____ glycogen
Increased blood glucose
Build-up glycogen stores

-fat lysis & redistribution
-inhibits sugar uptake
-GNG, glycogen synthesis
-protein degradation
Purines
Adenine
Guanine
Purines can be made de novo where and from what
In liver
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate
(--> IMP --> AMP or GMP --> ADP or GDP)
Defect in HGPRT causes what
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Hyperuricemia & neurological signs
Degradation of purines ultimately leads to what
Xanthine --> uric acid
Hyperuricemia causes
GOUT
Pyrimidines
Uracil
Cytosine
Thymine
De novo synthesis of pyrimidines occurs where and from what?
Liver
Glutamine
(--> carbamoylphosphate --> OMP --> UMP)
Degradation of pyrimidines
C --> beta alanine
T --> beta amino-isobutyrate

(harmless and excreted in urine)
Operon
DNA in prokaryotes
"operational unit"

(promotor, operator, 1 or more structural genes)
Promotor
DNA
-RNA Poly binds
-5' end of operon
Operator
DNA
-b/t promoter and structural gene
-binding site for repressors
-If repressor bound --> operon "off"
Repressor
Protein
-regulatory
-binds operator & prevents transcription
Regulator gene
DNA
-codes for repressor
lac-OPERON
Lactose binds to repressor prevents repressor from binding DNA
Operon freed --> "on"
Polymerase - transcription

(beta galactoside)
Transcription factor
Binds TATA box (part of promotor)

Must be there for RNA Poly to recognize promotor
Inducer
binds to DNA & activates some genes and inactivates others
Enhanser
regulatory DNA sequence