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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Four Sentence Types
Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamative.
Discourse
The overall structure of a text
Grammar
The structure of units of language no longer than a sentence.
Graphology
The visual appearance of language
Lexis
The words, phrases and idiom of language.
Phonology
The sound of language.
Pragmatics
The particular meanings conveyed by language in specific context.
Semantics
The meaning of language.
Acronyms
Words composed from the initial letters of words they represent. E.g. AIDS; LA; ID
Allographs
A variant of type E.g Bb
Amelioration
The process of semantic change in an upward manner - the meaning becomes more positive. For example Bachelor.
Anacoluthon
A speech construction which starts but fails to finish or goes wrong.
Anaphoric
Referencing back to an already stated lexical item i.e The PRIME MINISTER spent his day in office and at 3pm HE left downing street.
Anithesis
Where a parallel structure is used to highlight contrasting ideas i.e 'let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belabouring the problems that divide us'
Antonyms / Synonyms
Words of opposite and similar meanings i.e FAT/thin - antonyms FAST/QUICK - synonyms
Archaisms
Words used in english a long time ago which now give an old-fashioned or superior tone. E.g 'Thou' or 'Hath'
Block language
Ungrammatical language that has been shortened for dramatic effect E.g Dog bit postman
Cataphoric
Referencing forwards to an as yet undisclosed lexical item. E.g 'I believe HIM' 'Tony would never lie'
Clipping
A colloquial way of talking where words are shortened E.g 'Flu' or 'Prof'
Cohesion
A measure of how well a text fits together as a whole, its internal logic and construction
Collocation
Phrases which consist of words you expect to be linked E.g Fish and Chips
Deixis
Deictic words are orientation words that locate precisely what is being talked about E.g 'This here' and 'That there'
Discollocation
Where the expected collocation is not met
Dysphemism
A harsh 'to the point' term expression of a delicate subject e.g HE'S DEAD as apposed to He passed away.
Elision
The missing out of a word or words in speech or writing ' We're goin'
Ellipses
The missing out of a word or words in a sentence E.g 'Where you going?'
Euphemism
A socially acceptable word or phrase used to avoid talking about something potentially distasteful. E.g 'The powder room'
Embedding
The clause within a sentence; where one piece of information is embedded in another ' The man WHO LIVES NEXT DOOR is very friendly'
Hedges
Words of phrases used to indicate a degree of uncertainty or tentativeness e.g possibly, maybe
Idioms
Phrases where the meaning is not derived from the meaning of the individual words E.g 'drink up'
Intensifiers
These are adverbs which intensify the meaning of a word e.g He was VERY good, I REALLY, REALLY like it
Jargon
Specialist language, particular to the specific subject of the text. E.g in a car advertisement '140mph''
Malapropism
The misuse of words which sound similar,' there cat' instead of 'their cat'
Minimal responses
Short utterances made in response to a speaker E.g 'mm', 'yes'; 'I see', 'Oh'
Mode
The medium of communication (e.g speech or writing)
Morpheme
The smallest unit of grammatical meaning
Negation
The process of using lexical elements used to form negative structures e.g 'not', 'no' ; ' never'
Neologisms
New words introduced into the language e.g IPOD or BLOG
Oxymoron
Two words of opposite meaning and association placed together for effect e.g HOLY SINNER
Paralinguistic features
Gestures and facial expressions which contribute to the communication of meaning.
Parallelism
The repetition of a pattern or structure in related words of phrases e.g your english teacher thinks your a fool, your maths teacher thinks your a fool and you french teacher thinks your a fool'
Parataxis
A list where nouns or clauses can be linked without conjunctions e.g ' he packed a torch, a map , a compass and a gun'
Pejoration
The process of semantic change in a downward manner
Phatic speech
Turns designed to maintain a sense of cooperation or establish a relationship, Hi, how are you?
Post modification
A modifying phrase that occurs after the head noun in a noun phrase e.g John kicked the ball badly
Pre modification
A modifying phrase that occurs before the head noun in a noun phrase e.g the LUXURIOUS EXPENSIVE restaurant
Prosodic features
Vocal elements of spoken language e.g tone pitch and volume
Quantifiers
Words which express quantity e.g 'all', 'some', ' every' 'much'
Register
A variety of language appropriate to a particular purpose and context. The formality of a text.
Semantic field
Lexical items that related to a specific theme or topic
Tautology
Unnecessary repetition e.g i myself personally did it