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38 Cards in this Set

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Syntax

The way words form sentences.

Parenthesis

An aside within a text created by sectioning off extra information between brackets, dashes or between two commas.

Hypophora

When a rhetorical question is immediately followed by an answer in a text.

Litotes

Deliberate downplaying of things for effect.

Parallelism

The creation of patterns in a text, through repetition of words or phrases (phonological) or by balancing meanings (semantic) for deliberate effect.

Pre/post-modifiers

Pre: where the descriptive words come before the thing they are describing.


Post: where the descriptive words come after the thing they are describing.

Extended metaphor

When a metaphor continues throughout a text with recurring references to the compared item.

Antithesis

When ideas contrast or oppose one another; a semantic contrast in a text.

Binary opposites

Elements of a text that hold opposite ends of a notional scale, e.g. hot/cold, big/small, loud/quiet

(A)syndetic listing

Asyndetic: the listing of elements that excludes any form of co-ordinating conjunction.


Syndetic: the listing of elements featuring a co-ordinating conjunction.

Consonance

The repetition of double consonants in the middle of words, e.g. better, letter, butter

Assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds, e.g. wood, good

Clipping

Colloquial emission of parts of words to create a more casual alternative, e.g. 'cause, bra

Rhetoric

An example of persuasive language.

Malapropism

When a speaker accidentally uses the wrong word, e.g. The world's my lobster

Semantic shift

The shift in a word's meaning over time.

Inverted syntax

When the ordering of words is rearranged to create an alternative weighting to a sentence.

Paralinguistic features

Beyond language; the things that aid communication but don't literally constitute language, e.g. body language, facial expressions etc.

Prosodic features

The sound effects of spoken language, such as stress, intonation and pitch

Back channelling

The process of giving feedback through encouraging noises and positive comments.

Topic markers, shifters and loops

Marker: an utterance establishing the topic of a conversation.


Shifter: an utterance that moves a conversation onto another topic, e.g. anyway


Loop: returning to a previous topic further on in a conversation.

Hesitation indicators

Moments in discourse that indicate that the speaker is in some way playing for time, e.g. um, err or stuttering

Fillers

The insertion of words, phrases or noises into a speaker's discourse, e.g. like, y'know, right

Latch-ons

When a speaker takes their turn immediately after the preceding speaker has finished speaking.

Glottal stops

The omission of dental sounds in the middle of words like butter, letter etc.

Non-fluency features

Any feature which would indicate that the speaker is not speaking with fluency, e.g. stammering or inverted syntax

Vocative

A direct reference to another speaker in discourse.

Elision

The omission of a vowel or syllable in the pronunciation of a word.

Code switching

The ability of the speaker to alter the register of their speech to suit a different social situation.

Anaphoric reference

A reference back to something mentioned earlier in a text.

Deictic expressions

Phrases/words often referring to place (e.g. over there) or time (e.g. yesterday)

Determiner

A word placed in front of a noun to indicate quantity or identify the noun in some way.

Discourse marker

Words that indicate links or divisions between parts of discourse, e.g. 'well, anyway'

Foregrounding

Using word order to highlight part of a sentence.

Oral signal

An expressive sound such as 'mmm' or sighing

Preposition

A word that indicates how one thing is related to another, e.g. The book is on the table

Sibilance

The repetition of s, soft c, sh and z sounds.

Subordinate clause

A clause in a sentence that is of less importance than the main clause, and which cannot stand on its own and make sense.