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38 Cards in this Set

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Define periodicity
A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic numbers and periodic table position.
Name some periodic properties.
- Atomic Radius
- First Ionisation Energy
What happens to atomic radius as you go across the period?
- atomic radius decreases
- nuclear charge increases
- nuclear attraction increases
- electron shielding does not change
What happens to atomic radius as you go down the group?
- atomic radius increases
- electron shells increases
- nuclear attraction decreases
- electron shielding increases
What happens to first ionisation energy as you go across the period?
- Nuclear charge increases
- Nuclear attraction increases
- Energy required increases
What happens to first ionisation energy as you go down the group?
- Atomic radius increases
- Nuclear attraction decreases
- Electron shielding decreases
- Energy required decreases
Define charge density
The closeness of an atom and its low atomic radius in metallically bonded elements
Define the Group 2 elements
Alkaline Earth Metals
What happens to solubility of Group 2 elements as you go down the group?
it increases
What happens to the capability of thermal decomposition of Group 2 elements as you go down the group?
It gets harder to achieve
What are the physical properties of Group 2 elements?
- Metallic Bonds
- High melting and boiling points
- Low charge densities
- Forms colourless compounds
What are Group 2 elements?
Reducing agents
What happens to the reactivity of Group 2 elements of you go down the group and why?
- Reactivity Increases
- Atomic Radius Increases
- Electron Shielding Decreases
- Nuclear charge has little effect
- Outer electron is lost more easily
What happens when Group 2 elements react with Oxygen?
a vigorous redox reaction which forms an oxide
What happens when Group 2 elements react with water?
a gentle redox reaction which forms a hydroxide and hydrogen
Name some uses of Group 2 Hydroxides.
CaOH = used to reduce acidity of soil
Mg(OH)2 = used as milk of magnesia to neutralise stomach acid
What is the test to identify a Halogen?
Dissolve it in water and add cyclohexane.
What is the test to identify a Halide ion?
Add silver nitrate.
What colour change occurs when you dissolve Chlorine in:

a) Water
b) Cyclohexane
a) Pale Green
b) Pale Green
What colour change occurs when you dissolve Bromine in:

a) Water
b) Cyclohexane
a) Orange
b) Orange
What colour change occurs when you dissolve Iodine in:

a) Water
b) Cyclohexane
a) Brown
b) Violet
What colour precipitate occurs when you add silver nitrate to Chloride ions?
White
What colour precipitate occurs when you add silver nitrate to Bromide ions?
Cream
What colour precipitate occurs when you add silver nitrate to Iodide ions?
Yellow
What is the name given to the Group 7 elements?
The Halogens
What happens to reactivity as you go down Group 7 and why?
- Reactivity decreases
- Atomic Radius increases
- Electron Shielding increases
- Ability to gain electron into p-Subshell decreases
What charge and type of bonding occurs in Halode ions?
Covalent Bonding with a charge of -1
What is a displacement reaction?
A reaction where a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from an aqueous solution of the latter's ions
Describe the states of the Group 7 halogens at room temperature:

a) Flourine
b) Chlorine
c) Bromine
d) Iodine
e) Astatine
a) Yellow gas
b) Green gas
c) Brown liquid
d) Blacky grey solid
e) Solid
What is sublimation?
When an element changes from Solid to gas without becoming a liquid.
What is disproportionation?
When an element in a redox reaction is both oxidised and reduced simultaneous
What are the tests, and results, for finding an acid?
a) Dissolve metal in acid, fizzes producing Hydrogen
b) Dissolve carbonate in acid, fizzes producing carbon dioxide
What are the tests, and results, for finding a Carbonate?
a) Add Acid - dissolves and produces carbon dioxide
b) Heat and pass through limewater - decreased mass and milky to show presence of Carbon dioxide
What is the reaction for the disproportionation of chlorine in water?
Cl2(aq) + H20(l) = HCLO(aq) + HCL(aq)
What is the reaction for the disproportionation of chlorine in Sodium hydroxide?
Cl2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) = NaCl(aq) + NaCLO(aq) + H20(l)
What is the trend across Period 2 of the periodic table for melting point and why?
Increases up to Carbon, then suddenly drops and then increases again

Up to carbon it is giant metallic then carbon is giant covalent (the highest), which drops to simple molecules of only van der waals forces
What is a second test that can be carried out to identify halides?
First, add Silver Nitrate and then the Addition of aqueous NH3:

Cl - Precipitate should dissolve to give a colourless solution

I - precipitate is insoluble in any concentration of NH3

Br - Dilute NH3 shows little change, but concentrate NH3 should dissolve the precipitate
Why can't Iodine oxidise or displace Chlorine (chloride) or bromine (bromide) in a reaction?
Because it is less reactive than both of these elements and therefore cannot displace them