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35 Cards in this Set

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Christ Carrying the Cross, Sebastiano del Piombo, 1535-40

-meditative imagery; austere side of the Baroque; uses foreshortening, chiaroscuro, emotion; Christ handing the Cross to the viewer

-'devotione moderna'; think about every detail of Christ's body; crippling weight of the Cross

Crucifixion with Saints, Annibale Carracci, 1583

-earliest truly Baroque response to Trent; ordinary people, logical composition

-inclusion of different elements of the story; storm

The Council of Trent, Pasquale Cati da Iesi, 1588-9

-reaffirmation of sacred art; Catholic Reformation/Counter-Reformation

-triumphalist; celebrating the council as victory; "Victory of the Church over Heresy" allegorical figure (with other allegories of Faith, the Eucharist, and Charity)

Vision of St Thomas Aquinas, Santi di Tito, 1593

-Baroque style of confusing the real/unreal; illusionistic, like Trinity by Masaccio; they're walking out into our space

-our own personal miracle; St Catherine was put on a wheel to break her back, it broke instead; St Thomas Aquinas, his vision

Martyrdom of St Matthew, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1599-1600

-bad boy of the Baroque; pauperism, violence, painted right on the canvas; existed between the devout and the profane; impacted his work

-added many details to his work that only become apparent with close study; tension between old and young, emotions from guilt to fear to remorse, parallel between the palm leaf and the sword

-Caravaggio as witness; guilt of the bystander; pauperism, witnessed lots of violence and death because of riots and plague

Domine Quo Vadis, Annibale Carracci, 1601-2

-small, meditative painting, 'delectare, dolere, movere', delight, teach, move; beautiful colours, Classical figures; oh wait, that's Peter, fleeing from Rome to avoid crucifixion; take up your cross, stop denying Me

-Annibale develops Classical influence by going to Rome, figures become more idealized

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Madonna of Loreto, c. 1603-6

-critiqued for painting Mary poor, barefoot, clean and floating; donors themselves were painted poor, pilgrims; growth in the impoverished population in the city with the fall of the feudal system; poor as deserving as anyone else

-hidden symbols; brick is for the Holy house of Loreto, shroud is the one in which He's buried, memento mori


Winter Landscape with Skaters, Claes Jansz Visscher, 1613

-trained to develop scenes of commercial infrastructure; pretty, local places

-no meaning at all, simply nice to look at; appealing to the market

-widely distributed, print

-the horizon line begins to fall; sky becomes the most expressive part of the painting

-nature and human aspects are in balance

The Miracles of St Ignatius of Loyola, Peter Paul Rubens, 1617-18

-represents the destruction of heresy; possessed by Protestantism

-Jesuit; law, order, education, steady

Virgin Immaculate, Diego Velázquez, 1618

-humanized his Virgin; used his wife as a model; demure, embarrassed by the weight of her responsibility

-trained under his father in law, but surpassed him; took the role of the king's painter; championed naturalism instead of the idealism of his father in law; Pacheco did a similar painting, symbols in the background, Woman of the Apocalypse from Revelations; Velázquez did everything he did, but in a sympathetic way

Pluto and Proserpina, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1621-2

-pushes the marble to its limit; showing the suppleness of skin; violation of both's flesh, by lust and by repulsion; pulling and pushing; breakdown of paragone; emotion reserved for painting

-transformation scene; inspired by being exposed to Greco-Roman sculpture by Pope Paul 5

St. Longinus, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1629-38

-capturing a transformation; conversion; snapshot of that moment

-Baroque was about movement; moving into our space to connect; movement to express emotion

Iconoclasts in a Church, Dirk van Delen, 1630

-impact of the Reformation on art; images should be narrative, not iconic; this would spark the Counter Reformation, and a new, decorum-filled, celebration of religious imagery

-Beeldenstorm, iconoclastic attacks in the Low Countries; sets off the civil war between the Spanish Netherlands (Flanders, Catholic) and Holland (Protestant), which would eventually bring the Dutch independence

After the Rain, Salomon Van Ruysdael, 1631

-most celebrated landscape of the time

-looks exciting; clouds; suggests a story

-figures are just going about their business; no narrative

-expressive quality of nature; like how Bernini treats fabric

-humans are part of the landscape

-lowered horizon emphasizes the sky; story told through the clouds

Glorification of the Reign of Urban VIII, Pietro da Cortona, 1633-9, fresco, Palazzo Barberini, Rome

-glorifying the Barberini family; golden bees being crowned by Immortality, surrounded by Religion, Rome (carrying the papal tiara), Faith, Charity, and Hope; ok to have pagan artworks if they're private, but not nude

-illusionistic; all under one sky; foreshortening to add height; designed by a hired scholar

The Surrender of Breda, Diego de Velázquez, 1635

-propaganda for the king of Spain; wasn't depicting real events, but instead based off of a play; they hated each other in reality, wouldn't be bowing

-contrasting fabrics and emotions between the two sides; made it obvious who won

-reality of war shown in the background

The Arcadian Shepherds, Nicolas Poussin, 1638-40

-meant to look like a utopian pastoral scene, exuding classicism

-memento mori; "I too am in Arcadia"; some interpret the woman as death by her lack of worry; man's shadow looks like a scythe

Penitent Magdalene, Georges de la Tour, ca 1640-45

-ideal meditative image; modesty, place yourself into her place; symbols of her life to identify her: hair, ointment jar, whip; skull for death, rope for Franciscan order (mystical movement for one-on-one devotion, meditation)

-influenced by Caravaggio, chiaroscuro, pauperism; uses light to highlight the important parts of the image

S Ivo alla Sapienza, Francesco Borromini, 1642-52, Rome

-wisdom; Sapienza=knowledge; dedicated to the Holy Spirit, grants wisdom; special law degree, tower shaped like a diploma; orb with flames of knowledge; University of Rome's chapel

-Borromini was proud of being a builder; architecture was to him what sculpture was to Bernini; all white, focus solely on the architectural elements; catches light; separate levels but his architecture moves in symphony between both (unlike Bernini's Sant Andrea al Quirinale); concave and convex juxtaposition

-continuity of the courtyard, but done in his own style; brick is material of the people; dome in a box

The Annunciation, Philippe de Champaigne, 1645

-emphasis on elegance, "gloire"; unfrightened, courtly, rich, Queen of Heaven; no raw emotion, proper

-other styles focus on the earthly, but Champaigne shows the heavenly

The Peace of Westphalia, Gerard Terborch, c.1648

-treaty signed between the Spanish and the Dutch, declaring freedom of religion (no state religion, no more persecution)

-the artist painted himself as present, as a witness; far left, foreground; this was not how it actually happened, there was fighting and shouting; Terborch presents it as ordered

Cornaro Chapel, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1647-1652, Rome

-wanted to create a space that was a vision; seeing it in your head

-breathing architecture; adds drama and emotion

-false balconies; figures show you how to react to the vision

The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1647-72, Rome

-turned a painting into a sculpture (Ecstasy of St Margaret)

-drapery expresses emotion

-natural light

-angel is kind, pulling away; no violence (unlike the rape scenes)

Haarlem Sea, Jan Van Goyen, 1656

-brings the horizon down even more

-sky and water and the most expressive elements

-limited palette

-small human element

-clouds are the most important part

Apostle Paul, Rembrandt van Rijn, c. 1657

-Word over image; author portrait; scripture as sword

-Rembrandt's pride; signature

Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window, Jan Vermeer, 1657

-meditative quality; mysterious, still, quiet, ethereal

-see her face; makes the viewer wonder about a story; reflection could be her inner thoughts

-symbols of trading empire: carpets, maps, pottery; pride and wealth

Cathedra Petra, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1657-66, St Peter's Rome

-bel composto

-inspired by the forty hours' devotion (Carlo Rainaldi design)

-ephemera, theater

-Bernini's skill: chair floating above the hands of the apostles; chair is empty, waiting for the return of Christ

Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1658-72, Rome

-entire church is meant to act like a miracle; walk to the altar faster than you'd think; St Andrew dying on a cross, his body and soul ascending to heaven; natural light above the painting; the dome acts as the heavenly realm

-bel composto

-had to work with a small space, with no grand entrance; creates a two-story entryway that bends to welcome you in

Self-Portrait, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1659

-scholarly, beret, business man; signed everything; impasto to mark his paintings; melancholy=genius; branding himself

-painted himself in the image of Baldassare by Castiglione; cultured

The World Upside-Down, Jan Steen, 1663

-genre painting

-loves his characters; moralistic

-World Upside Down was a word game

-Dutch proverbs (eg: throwing roses before swine)

-Nun and a Quaker having an argument; making fun by putting a quacker on a quaker

Dome of S Lorenzo, Guarino Guarini, 1668-87, Turin

-made the space he had seem as big as possible; took away anything that blocked the walls; columns in the round; palladium motif (serliana); removed the wall from the dome to let in the most light

-royal patrons; coloured marble, frescoes, triumphal, large

-interweaving ribs on the dome create a rotating effect; referencing Medieval and Islamic motifs)

The Triumph of the Name of Jesus, Baciccio, 1676-85, Ceiling of the Gesù, Rome

-Jesuits self-congratulating themselves; damned outside of the mandorla, like Loyola casting out the devil

-Bernini's student; knows how to mix the mediums; spills out over the cauffering; fake shadows; perspective to direct your gaze

Allegory of the Missionary Enterprise of the Society of Jesus, Andrea Pozzo, 1691-94, Sant' Ignazio, Rome

-the church ran out of money, so they had Pozzo paint fake architecture in the vault using precise perspective

-globalization; four corners have represented the four continents known at the time

St John Nepomuk, Giovanni Santini, 1719-22, Czech Republic

-church dedicated to the tongue of St John of Nepomuk that hadn't decomposed; in the middle of the dome; in the shape of a giant tongue

-five stars

-opposite of dome in a box; non-structural vaults and tracery

Transparente, Diego and Narciso Tomé, 1721-32, Toledo Cathedral

-uses light to its full advantage; blew open the vault to have natural light; goes through the transparente/gloria to shine on the monstrance (forty hours' devotion); light melts the marble off of the columns, revealing gold underneath, referencing the new Jerusalem

-architectural altarpiece/retablo; bel composto

-get the full experience by moving