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99 Cards in this Set

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black-figure technique
A technique of vase painting in which a colored slip (dilute clay) is applied to the body of the vase; details are scratched through the slip, revealing the vase’s body color.

When fired, the slip figures are black, and the body color of the vase is red.
canon of proportion
A system of constructing the human body with perfect
proportions based on a mathematical unit, such as the height of the head.
A statue representing a human that supports the roof of a building.
The interior room of a Greek temple that houses the cult statue.
The vertical support of a temple; composed of a long shaft, a capital at the top, and sometimes a base.
conceptual figure
A way of drawing the human figure so that all of its parts are shown as clearly as possible.

The head and feet are in profile, but the shoulders and eyes are shown frontally.
A weight shift caused by having most of the body’s weight on the straight back leg, while the other leg is slightly bent.
Corinthian order
The tallest and most graceful order; columns have capitals encircled with two rows of acanthus leaves.
Doric order
The simplest order, with heavy proportions and cushionlike capitals.
The horizontal beam atop a row of columns; it is divided into the frieze above and the architrave below.
The manner in which a column swells in the middle and tapers upward.
A way of drawing a form so that it appears to extend forward in space.

For example, a painting that shows a person reaching toward the viewer would use this technique.
Generally, a composition that takes the form of a flat band.
Specifically in the classical orders, the middle band of the entablature;
Doric friezes consist of triglyphs and metopes, and Ionic friezes often have a continuous band of relief sculpture depicting a procession or similar activity.
ground line
A baseline upon which all figures stand.
Hippodamian town planning
Town planning that sets all streets at right angles, even if the terrain is irregular;
said to have been invented by Hippodamos
of Miletos.
Ionic order
A Greek order with columns that are taller and more elegant
in proportion than those of the Doric order; the capitals have
volutes (scrolls).
Clothed, often painted, statue of a young woman, usually representing an attendant to a god.

She has a stiff pose and an Archaic smile.
Nude statue (slightly larger than life-sized) of a heroic young man with one foot forward, straight knees, and an Archaic smile.
Shading from light to dark to create an illusion of three dimensionality.
In architecture, a system of proportion and ornamentation.
The triangular gable below the roof of a temple facade.
post-and-lintel system
An architectural system consisting of vertical posts supporting horizontal beams.
The illusion that objects or figures are set back in space relative to the surface of a painting.

Figures seem to stand on an imaginary ground plane (instead of a ground line); toward the back of the painting, figures are smaller and are placed higher in the space.
red-figure technique
A technique of vase painting in which a colored slip is used for the background, leaving the figures as silhouettes of
unglazed clay.

Details within the figures are brushed on with the colored slip. When fired, the figures are red and the background is black.
triglyphs and metopes
The typical divisions of a Doric frieze; the triglyphs look like three vertical bars,
and the metopes are square fields where
sculpture can be placed.
Halls on either side of the nave, usually narrower and always shorter than the nave.
A semicircular extension from the end of a building.
A curved structural form that is constructed from wedge-shaped blocks with a keystone at the top
An interior room in a Roman house that is open to the sky, allowing rain to collect in a shallow pool below.
barrel vault
An arch extended in space to create a rounded roof or ceiling.
In Roman architecture, a multipurpose municipal building
it is rectangular in plan, usually with the entrance on the long side, and sometimes with apses at either end.
A square or rectangular interior space defined by columns or piers;
a series of bays could replace the aisles in a basilica
A row of windows below the roof of a basilica that provides light to the nave.
A building material made from mortar, sand, small stones, and water.
cross vault
A roof or ceiling formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults.
A hemispherical structure serving as a roof or ceiling.
engaged column
A column that appears to be cut in half vertically and attached to the wall.
equestrian monument
A sculpture of an emperor or other leader mounted triumphantly on a horse.
An open area in the center of Roman towns used for speeches and other public gatherings;
typically, government buildings and temples would be set at the edges of the forum.
Painting done with water-based pigment on a plaster wall;
if the paint is applied while the plaster is wet, it will bond permanently
with the plaster.

Roman wall painting was done on damp plaster.
The tall, central hall-like section running the length of a basilica.
peristyle court
An interior courtyard surrounded by columns; it was first found in Hellenistic houses.
A relief that looks like a column with rectangular edges flattened against a wall.
A raised platform; specifically, one that serves as a base for a temple.
triumphal arch
A large portal structure commemorating events like the military conquests of a Roman emperor;
it is composed of a shallow barrel
vault (often with shorter vaults on either side of the main opening)
and a story above the vault called the attic.
Very precise realism; usually applied to portrait sculpture that shows the subject without idealization.
A walkway around an apse or around the middle of a central-plan church.
As part of a Christian church, an open courtyard before the entrance of a basilica-plan church.
basilica-plan church
A church with a nave and aisles on either side, often with a transept and apse at one end.
An underground cemetery that includes chambers where groups could gather for religious ceremonies.
central-plan church
A church whose plan is symmetrical in all directions around a central point; for example, an octagonal, circular, or Greek cross
A decorative pattern of lines, ribbons, or even the stretched limbs of animals, that looks like loose weaving or knots.
A handwritten book; an illuminated manuscript has hand-painted illustrations.
A building set over the place where a Christian saint was martyred or where the martyr is buried.
A unit of measure or a geometric shape (a square or cube, for example) repeated throughout a building.
An enclosed complex of buildings serving all the religious and personal needs of a community of monks.
Images made from small tiles, pieces of glass, or pebbles set into mortar.
The porch or vestibule at the entrance of a basilica-plan church.
Heavy masonry supports for a building, usually square or rectangular in cross section.
Parts of the bodies or articles that have touched the bodies of
Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the saints.
A place where manuscripts were copied and decorated.
The part of a church that crosses the nave at a right angle creating a cross-shaped plan.
triumphal arch
In a Christian church, an arched opening separating the nave from the altar area.
A multilevel structure added to the main entrance of a church.
A thickened area of a wall that gives the wall greater support.
Small extensions around the apse and/or transept of the church used for additional altars or shrines
they are called radiating chapels when they extend from the apse.
The part of the church reserved for the choir or clergy;
generally, the part east of the crossing, including the altar and apse.
compound piers
Heavy masonry building supports that appear to be composed of several columns bundled together.
The place where the nave and the transept intersect.
flying buttress
An open, arched support on the exterior of a church.
A second level above the side aisles of a church.
Gothic sway
A pose in which one hip pushes out to the side, creating a slight S-shaped curve in the body.
The vertical element on the side of a door.
nave arcade
The rows of large arches on either side of the nave.
A container for a relic;
usually made of precious materials.
ribbed vault
A vault supported by a strong, stone arch that projects from its surface.
The carved stone framework for a stained-glass window.
A series of small arches above the nave arcade in a Gothic cathedral;
there is a narrow passageway behind the arches.
The center post dividing a double door; it is often decorated with sculpture.
A large painting meant to stand on or behind an altar.
buon fresco
True fresco, or buon fresco, is painting with water-based paints on wet plaster walls;
the paint chemically bonds with the plaster forming a permanent surface.
fresco a secco
Painting done on dry plaster, which is necessary with some pigments like ultramarine.
panel painting
Painting on a wood panel; it is prepared with a coating of gesso (crushed chalk and glue) that is sanded and polished for a smooth
A row of small paintings below the main panel of an altarpiece.
Egg-yolk-based painting, usually done on smooth wood panels in small strokes.
atmospheric perspective
A way to create a sense of space in a painting by making distant objects hazier and less sharply defined.
Shading with light and dark tones to create the illusion of solid form.
Civic organizations for people engaged in related trades.
Guilds maintained standards within their trades and assisted members in need; they were important political and cultural
forces in the towns.
linear perspective
A system of creating the illusion of spatial depth based on mathematics and optical principles; in this system,
all the orthogonals go to a vanishing point.
In a linear perspective construction, the lines that seem to go directly back in space.
vanishing point
The point on the horizon toward which the orthogonals recede.
A form of printmaking that uses a metal plate.
The design is cut into the plate with a sharp, pointed tool called a burin.
Ink is forced into the cut lines while the surface is wiped clean;
paper is pressed onto the plate using a printing press, which draws the ink
out of the lines
A painting technique in which the artist layers transparent glazes composed of a large quantity of oil with only a small amount of
Painting done in monochromatic tones to simulate the look of stone sculpture.
The disapproval (and sometimes destruction) of religious images,
usually because religious leaders fear that people will believe the images themselves are divine.
intuitive perspective
A method of creating an illusion of depth by observing how forms recede, become smaller, or become less distinct in the distance.
Unlike linear perspective, lines do not all recede to a vanishing point
although they may converge toward a line or broad area in the center of the painting.
oil paint
Paint made of pigment suspended in oil (usually linseed oil).
A painting composed of three parts, hinged so that the outer parts—the wings—fold up and close over the main panel.
Similarly, a polyptych is made up of many parts.
A form of printmaking that uses a wooden block.
The design is left raised (in relief), while the areas around it are cut away; the
raised areas are inked to create the printed image.