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45 Cards in this Set

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Millet, Gleaners, 1857, France/Realism

-poor women collecting whatever the harvesters left in the field.

-focus on back-breaking labor of peasants

-sympathy to the poor

-overseer on horse and fruits of harvest in distant background

Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849, France/Realism

-his manifesto painting --> first socialist painting

-huge, figures are life sized

-open grave in viewers eyeline

-no focal point, not structured, ignores rules of composition

-scene of the lowerclass & death of romanticism

Talbot, A View of the Boulevards of Paris, 1843, England/Calotype Photography/Realism

-calotype invented by Talbot

-lack of crisp, clear detail


-no way to really manipulate photography-->true realism

Millais, Ophelia, 1851, England/Pre-Raphaelitism

-drew from literature (shakespeare), fiction scene

-model painted in bath tub, but setting was extremely realistic

-one of the greatest painted nature studies, all plant life real

-new idea of realism: fake subject with perfect fidelity of what you can see

Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe, 1863, France/Realism

-considered scandalous-->nude woman sitting with fully dressed men

-she is looking directly at viewer, not embarrassed

-new brand of realism: controversial pictorially rather than politically

-stark light, not trying to enhance her features

-men dressed in contemporary fashion, she is like Venus

Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, England/Impressionism

-concept of "modernity"

-trying to capture the fugitive and the ephemeral

-fireworks, smoke/fog in London

-critics thought this wasn't a reasonable subject for a painting

Monet, Impression: Sunrise, 1872, France/Impressionism

-illusion of people through brushstrokes

-sun reflecting on water

-amazing sense of sky and misty morning

Degas, The Dance Lesson, c. 1879, France/Impressionism

-degas was interested in the handwork of ballerinas

-unconventional composition, spontaneous, painted in a broad way

-appears effortless, but intense amount of labor behind it

-non-traditional canvas (width>height), decorative, new visual devices

Cassatt, In the Loge, 1878, France/Impressionism

-woman went alone to afternoon show-->transgressive

-woman is doing the action

-men are supposed to be looking at women: man with opera glasses looking towards her

-american artist (female), follower of Degas

Cézanne, Montagne Sainte-Victoire c. 1887, France/Post-Impressionism

-dissatisfied with light weight impressionist paintings

-building up shapes into an image, patchwork quilt

-not capturing an instant, carefully analyzing

-probably most influential artist

-looking at landscape in a very different way

-began as follower of impressionism

Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884, France/Post-Impressionism

-taking a traditional impressionist sunset activity

-not sure what the class of the subject is

-he was a member of the middle class

-pointilism, scientific, commonly paints with opposing colors

Van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, France/Post-Impressionism

-scene essentially that he saw from the window of the asylum

-he had a mental breakdown--> sky expresses his emotion, uses the colors he felt

-textured, broad and vigorous brush strokes, immediacy of the artist

-euphoria: link of the earth in the sky

Copley, Watson and the Shark, 1778, United States/Neoclassicism

-first famous american painter, very good at capturing the likeness of a human

-Paul Revere, long before he was a political hero


-Copley wanted to elevate the status of a craftsman: strong, intellectual, moral,etc.

-pyramid form, bright light, association of Revere and the free masons

Bingham, Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, 1845, United States/Romanticism

-the sunset of savagery, very peaceful and tranquil, no sign of trouble

-nostalgic image: at this time there were no longer independent traffickers

-there is no danger in the west--intended for easterners

-by this time, the Indians were no longer in Missouri

Cole, The View from Mount Holyoke-The Oxbow, 1836, United States/Romanticism

-studied Constable and Turner

-depicts the unsettled parts of America, the wilderness

-one side is cultivated, peaceful, and beautiful; the other side is complete wilderness, landscapes, and storm.

-difficult to know which side Cole is favoring

-sun shading is bridge between the two sides

-should we preserve wilderness? or tame wilderness?

Bierstadt, Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865, United States/Romanticism

-German painter, fled war and came to California

-part of the U.S that was seen for the first time by white people during the gold rush

-celebrates the beauty of painting

-nationalistic-->gives sense of grandeur, extremely empty golden light

-golden haze a sigh of divine power

Homer, Veteran in a New Field, 1865, United States/Realism

-optimistic title-->unreal field of wheat

-military jacket is left to the side-->civil war ended and everyone went home

-god rewarding the Union with beautiful display of wheat

-single-bladed tool represents the grim reaper-->encapsulates the mixed emotions at the end of the war: relief that its over, but continuing grief.

Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1879, United States/Realism

-exhibited in Philadelphia to celebrate 100 years of the declaration of independence

-Dr. Gross, med school students looking down (like Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson)

-live person being operated on, amputation, mother recoiling in horror

-chloroform on patients face-->development of anesthesia

Sargent, Madame X, 1883, United States/Realism

-portrait painting of young socialite, notorious for rumored infidelity

-a study in opposition-->opposing colors

-very controversial

Hassam, Late Afternoon, New York, Winter, 1900, United States/American Impressionism

-compared to Monet, pure impressionist painter but not as interested in naturalism

-magical effect of the city at twilight in the snow: poetic effect but not quiet realistic

-tonalism: painted in one dominant tone

-tapestry effect, muted noise of city with snow, masked the sky scrapers


-transformed everyday life of city and made it more pleasing

-natural appearance of scene seems more artificial and artful

Henri, Snow in New York, 1902, United States/Urban Realism

-objected magical view of city, focused on underbelly of city

-dirty snow, ordinary spot, not beautiful, many saw it as very ugly

-this is what the city is, not making social criticism at all

-American manner

Dove, Fog Horns, 1929, United States/Modernism

-first truly abstract american painter

-always rooted in the natural world, an impression of something

-when he hears the sound of a fog horn, this is what he sees

-circular forms look like the bells of the horn

-synesthesia: the production of a sense impression relating to a bodily sense

Sheeler, American Landscape, 1930, United States/Precisionism

-photographic quality to it, linear, highly measured, geometric

-industrial marvel, only one tiny indication of a human figure

-american landscapes have been displaced by factories

-Ford: dehumanizing people and starting mass production in America

Wood, American Gothic, 1930, United States/Regionalism

-result of movement called realism-->regionalist artists objected to the results of the armory show

-felt that American art had become Europeanized

-american artists were forgetting their roots and completely ignoring the mid-west and deep south

-trying to restore some traditions, folk life,and history of American settlement

-background house is in the American Gothic style

-Iowa, wanted to paint the kind of people who would have lived in the house

-icon of American art

Robinson, Fading Away, 1858, England/Albumen Silver Print

-photography started to become more artistic rather than scientific

-pictorialists: narrate and express through pictures

-used painterly technique, emphasized work of artists hand

-combination printing, made from five different negatives --> departs from reality, fictional representation

-warm brown tone--> made from egg whites

Atget, Pendant l'Eclipse, 1912, France/Gelatin Silver Print

-documents life in Paris

-transition in Paris from grandeur to industrialized

-shows group of people on the street viewing a solar eclipse, just a few days after the sinking of the titanic

-sky is white, top left corner black area=vignetting

Weston, Shells, 1927, United States/Gelatin Silver Print

-f/64 group (San Fran)--> putting forth new ideals of photography

-valued a small aperture, sharp contrast, rich tonality, disliked cropping

-photography in mind not hands

-simple and direct presentation, pure photography

Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, United States/Gelatin Silver Print

-documentary photography

-migrant workers and share croppers

-farm security administration wanted photographers to document poverty in the west

-empathy, social cause, mother is a madonna-like figure

Adams, Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, 1941, United States/Gelatin Silver Print

-iconic image

-big negative, captures more detail

-sharp detail, rich and tonal variety

-printing techniques and composition of the image

-different register throughout the photograph

-working with ideals

Matisse, The Woman with a Hat, 1905, France/Fauvism

-shocking use of color and abstractions

-brush strokes alternate between thin and thick, agitated strokes

-colors are not natural, flattens out figure, no conventional shading technique

Matisse, Bonheur de Vivre, 1906, France/Fauvism

-evokes nausea

-draws on classical imagery, pastoral scenery, influenced by Igres

-inconsistency in scale of figures--> confusing

-lack of faces, tension, not anatomically correct

Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907, France/Modernism

-five nude figures arranged around a still life of fruit

-stylistic heterogeneity, experimenting with facial features

-connects to african art-->masks

-no clear distinction between background and foreground

Picasso, The Guitarist, 1910, France/Cubism

-feels the cube relies too much on depth, changes his approach

-reducing terms of painting-->makes object in space ambiguous

-palette limited almost entirely to shades of brown

-lines give sense of body's contours, but rigid black lines cut across body and space

Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, France, Cubism

-curtain, text, curtain

-continuous oscillation between surface and depth

-challenge of how to undermine illusionism

Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1912, France/Cubism(Collage)

-collage: pasting everyday materials, adds link of rope to perimeter of canvas

-fragment of oil cloth, journals, newspapers

-looks like chair top/table top/cafe scene

-declares the literal surface of the canvas

-POV always shifting

Kandinsky, Composition V, 1911, Germant/Expressionism (Blaue Riter)

-wanted his art to be about internal relations

-medium specificity

Kandinsky, Impression III (Concert), 1911, Germany/Expressionism

-depicts the sensation of music, what music feels like

-not a figural composition

-uses color like musical notes

-inspired after attending a classical concert

Mondrian, Composition No. III with Red, Blue, Yellow, and Black, 1929, the Netherlands/Neo-Plasticism

-looking at the essence of something through oppositions put in balance and harmony

Malevich, Black Square, 1915, Russia/Suprematism

-inspired by Russia's new socialist movement

-the essential and basic form of something

-takes medium specificity VERY far: nothing but paint on canvas

Malevich, Suprematist Painting (White on White), 1918, Russia/Suprematism

Grosz and Heartfield, The Middle-class Philistine Heartfield Gone Wild, 1920, Germany/Dada


-making a point about the atrocity of war

-emasculation-->teeth over genital area

-prosthetic leg/lamp post

-lightbulb head/electroshock therapy

-kind of like a 3d collage

-dark, but humorous

Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Era of the Weimar Beer-Belly Culture, 1919, Germany/Dada

-criticizing domestic life and politics

-shows contemporary political figures: the kaiser, lennon, marx, etc

-circular mechanical composition, circle=revolution

-female dancer in center=women's role in the political revolution

Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, United States/Dada

Ray, Anatomy, c. 1930, France/Surrealism

-taking the female body and framing it in a strange and unreal way

-makes female body look like an erect penis

-slightly blurry, dream-like atmosphere

-dehumanizes female form

-automatism and subconsciousness

Oppenheim, Object: Fur Breakfast, 1936, France/Surrealism

-sexual undertones

-intended to make one think of the domestic sphere and then become confused

-wants to provoke a physical, emotional, and psychological reaction-->repulsion