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54 Cards in this Set

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Catacombs

Underground chamberused as a burial place is a catacomb

Atrium

a large open spacewithin a building, often featuring a glass roof

Narthex

anarchitectural element typical of earlyChristian and Byzantine basilicas consisting of the entranceor lobby area usually located at the west endof the nave, opposite thechurch's main altar

Transept

transverse section,of any building, which lies across the main body of the building

Ambulatory

theprocessional way around the east end of a cathedraland behind the high altar

Icon

generally a flatpanel painting depicting JesusChrist, Mary, saints and/or angels

Iconoclasm

destruction of religious icons and other images or monuments forreligious or political motives

Kufic script

oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of theold Nabataean script

Mohammad

Believed by Muslims to be a messenger of God, Muhammadas the last prophet sent by god

Quran

the Islamic sacredbook, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangelGabriel and written down in Arabic

Mecca

Birthplace of Muhammad, spiritual center ofIslam

Mosque

Muslim temple or place of public worship

Caliph

a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad

Qibla

the point toward which Muslims turn to pray, especially the Ka’ba, or House of God, at Mecca

Minbar

a short flight ofsteps used as a platform by a preacher in a mosque

Mihrab

a niche inthe wall of a mosque, at the point nearest to Mecca, toward which thecongregation faces to pray

Minaret

a tallslender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzincalls Muslims to prayer

Hypostyle mosque

In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columnsarea

Iwan

a large hall oraudience chamber often open on one side and found in Parthian architecture

Muqarnas

the Arabic word forstalactite vault

Aniconism

the practice of avoidingimages of divine beings, prophets or other respected religious figures, or indifferent manifestations, any human beings or living creatures

Cloisonné

decorative work inwhich enamel, glass, or gemstones are separated by strips of flattened wireplaced edgeways on a metal backing

Animal style

characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs

Vellum

fine parchment madeoriginally from the skin of a calf

Manuscript

a book, document, orpiece of music written by hand rather than typed or printed

Illumination

the art ofilluminating a manuscript

Scriptoria

a room set apart forwriting, especially one in a monastery where manuscripts were copied

Westwork

themonumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, orRomanesque church

Reliquary

a container for holyrelics

Pilgrimage churches

a church to which pilgrimages are regularly made, or a church alonga pilgrimage route, like the Wayof St. James, that is visited by pilgrims

Tympanum

is the semi-circularor triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance

Trumeau

in architecture, isthe central pillar or mullion supporting the tympanum of a large doorway, commonly found inmedieval buildings

Cistercians
a member of aChristian order of monks and nuns founded in 1098, which follows an especiallystrict form of the Benedictine ruler
Benedictines
a monk or nunof an order following the rule of St. Benedict
Barrel vaults
a vaultforming a half cylinder
Nave
the central part of achurch building intended to accommodate most of the congregation
Narthex
an antechamber, porch, or distinct area at thewestern entrance of some early Christian churches, separated off by a railingand used by catechumens, penitents
Aisles

a passage betweenrows of seats in a building such as a church or theater, an airplane, or a train

Transept

either of the twoparts forming the arms of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from thenave

Crossing

in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church

Choir

between the altar andthe nave, used by the choir and clergy

Ambulatory

a place for walking,especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church or monastery

Buttresses

a projecting supportof stone or brick built against a wall

Flying buttresses

a buttress slantingfrom a separate pier, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports

Jamb statues

figure carved on the jambs of a doorway or window

Rose window

a circularwindow with mullions or tracery radiating in a form suggestive of a rose

Trefoil/quatrefoiltyle

trefoil describes alayout or floorplan consisting of three apses in clover-leaf shape

Illuminated manuscripts
a manuscript in which the text is supplemented withsuch decoration as initials,borders (marginalia) and miniatureillustrations
Grisaille
a term for painting executed entirely in monochrome or near-monochrome, usually in shadesof grey
Book of hours
is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages. It is the mostcommon type of surviving medieval illuminatedmanuscript
Abbot Suger
a French abbot, statesman, historian and one ofthe earliest patrons of Gothicarchitecture
Fresco
a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime
Altarpiece
a piece ofart such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing areligious subject and suspended in a frame behind the altar of a Christian Church
Punchwork
a small repetitive allover pattern made with asteel punch