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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Impression: Sunrise




- view of the harbor from Monet's home, painting en plain air

- being outside sharpened Monet's focus on the roles that light and color play in the way nature appears to the eye

- systematic investigation of light and color and the elimination of the traditional distinction between a sketch and a formal painting enabled Monet to paint images that truly conveyed a sense of the momentary and transitory

en plain air

Monet's goal of capturing an instantaneous representation of atmosphere and climate, which he found impossible in a studio


Sought to capture fleeting moments, impermeance of conditions, conditions of light and reflection

critics response to Impression: Sunrise

"it's like an unfinished painting, like an impression"

The Child's Bath

Mary Cassat



- one of the best known impressionists, even as a woman

- brought a distinctively feminine viewpoint to their work, especially with regard to the subjects they chose and the way they portrayed women

- Cassat's compositions owe much to Degas (The Tub, the visual solidity of Cassat's mother and child contrasts with the flattened patterning of the wallpaper and rug) and Japanese prints

- her subjects differ from those of most Impressionists, in part because, as a woman she could not go to cafes with her male friends

- tilted perspective from Japanese art

Mary Cassatt

- daughter of a wealthy Philadelphia banker

- lived at a time where formerly all-male American colleges were opening doors to women

- trained at PN academy of fine arts

- subjects were typically women and children who she presented with objectivity and sentiment

A Bar at the Folies-Bergere

Edouard Manet



- the bar was a popular cafe and music hall where parisans would enjoyed their leisure

- Impressionist subject that broke sharply with tradition

- central figure is a young barmaid who looks out from the canvas but seems detached from the viewer and the gentleman talking to her

- Manet called attention to the canvas by creating spatial inconsistencies (the relationship of the barmaid with her reflection in the mirror)

- at the top left of the painting the lower legs of the trapeze artist

Edouard Manet

- career bridged realism and impressionism

- A Bar at Folies-Bergere was his last great work

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte

Georges Seurat

Neo-Impressionism (Pointillism)


- Seurat's color system involved dividing colors into their component parts and applying the colors to the canvas in tiny dots where the forms are comprehensible only from a distance


artist separated color into component parts then the eyes optically blend the pigment dots, uses secondary colors

optical mixture

describes the visual effect of juxtaposed complementary colors

Night Cafe

Van Gogh


- explored ways that colors and distorted forms can express emotions

- the thickness, shape, and direction of the brushstrokes create a tactile counterpart to the intense colors

Vincent Van Gogh

- son of a Dutch protestant pastor

- believed he had a religious calling and did missionary work in the coal-mining area of Belgium

- repeated professional and personal failures brought him close to despair

- he turned to painting to find a way to communicate his experiences

Mont Sainte-Victoire

Paul Cezanne



- concerned with lines, planes, colors and nature

- cubist

- replaced the transitory visual effects of changing atmospheric conditions (the Impressionist's focus)


when facets and shapes are overlapping create an image

Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?

Paul Gaugin

Symbolism (Synthesism)


- painted in Tahiti

- moved to Tahiti in search of a place far removed from European materialism

- used native women and tropical colors to present a pessimistic view of the inevitability of the life cycle

- was a symbolist

- romanticized images of the nude


used symbols transformed from nature

synthetic cubism

takes apart the object and leaves the facets

analytic cubism

protects the object

Harmony in Red

Henri Matisse


- believed that colors conveyed meanings and that painters should choose compositions and colors express their feelings

- wanted all the colors to become a pictorial balance

- table and wall seem to merge because they have an identical pattern

Demoiselles D'Avignon

Pablo Picasso

Analytic Cubism


- early cubism, angular shapes, flatness of the space, primitivism


western art: African masks and Syrian masks

The Portuguese

Georges Braques

Analytic Cubism


- analyzing form from every possible vantage point

- jumble of overlapping forms

- fluid, undetermined space

- still life portrait that collapses into facets

Street, Dresden

Ernst-Ludwig Kirchner

German Expressionism: The Bridge


- perspective distortions, disquieting figures and color choices reflect the influence of the Fauves and of Edvard Munch who made similar expression

- provides a glimpse into the frenzied urban activity of a bustling German city before World War I

- focused on the detrimental effects of industrialization

German Expressionism: The Bridge

One of two groups of painters in Germany who called themselves Die Brucke (The Bridge)

- first group of expressionists

- gathered in Dresden in 1905 under the leadership of Kirchner

- thought that they were paving the way for a more perfect age by bridging the old age and the new

German Expressionism: The Blue Rider

One of two groups of painters in Germany who called themselves Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)

- second major German expressionist group

- formed in Munich in 1911

- two founding members were Vassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc

- name stemmed from mutual interest in horses and the color blue

Improvisation 28

Vassily Kandinsky

German Expressionism: The Blue Rider


- theories of Einstein and Rutherford convinced Kandinsky that material objects had no real substance

- he was one of the first painters to reject representation in favor of abstraction in his canvases

Armored Train

Gino Severnini

Italian Futurism


- glistening armored train with protruding cannon reflects the Futurist faith in the cleansing action of the war

- captures the dynamism and motion central to the Futurist manifesto


- emergence of a new artistic movement as a major consequence of the Great War

- Dadaists believed that Enlightenment reasoning had been responsible for the insane spectacle of collective homicide and global devastation that was World War I

- they concluded that the only route to salvation was through political anarchy, the irrational and the intuitive

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space

Umberto Boccioni

Italian Futurism


- celebrated the speed and dynamism of the modern age

- Boccioni's Futurist manifesto for sculpture advocated abolishing the enclosed statue

- the running figure's body is so expanded that it almost disappears behind the blur of its movement


the result of an artist's emotional attachment to the subject of the painting

"Painting art can be a religious experience"

Mark Rothko

Supremist Composition: Airplane Flying

Kazimar Malevich



- malevich developed an abstract style that he called Suprematism to convey that the supreme reality in the world is pure feeling

- bright colored rectangular shapes float against white space


- new artistic approach by Malevich

- "under surpremitism I understand the supremacy of pure feeling in creative art"

- the visual phenomena of the objective world are meaningless, the significant thing is feeling


Marcel Duchamp



- readymade sculptures were mass-produced objects that the Dada artist modified

- Duchamp conferred the stars of art on a urinal and forced people to see the object in a new light

Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow

Piet Mondrian

De Stijl


- Mondrian's "pure plastic" paintings consist of primary colors locked into a grid of intersecting vertical and horizontal lines

- by altering the grid patterns, he created a "dynamic equilibrium"

De Stijl

- started by a group of young Dutch artists

- formed in 1917 and began publishing a magazine called De Stijl (The Style)

- founders: Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg

- promoted utopian ideals

- believed in the birth of a new age in the wake of World War I

- felt that it was a time of balance between individual and universal values, when the machine would assure ease of living

- "The new is connected with the universal"

The City

Fernand Leger



- Leger championed the "machine aesthetic"

- captured the mechanical commotion of urban life, incorporating the effects of billboard ads, flashing lights and noisy traffic


- opposed synthetic cubism on the grounds that it was becoming merely an esoteric, decorative art out of touch with the machine age

- maintained that machinery's clean functional lines and the pure forms of its parts should direct artists experiments in design

Homage to Bleriot

Robert Delaunay



- celebrates modern technological innovation

- paid tribute to the first pilot to fly across the English Channel

- swirling shapes and bold colors convey explosive energy


- Delaunay's version of cubism, after Orpheus, the mythical Greek musician

- art, like music, was distinct from the representation of the visible world

- Delaunay's own word for his art was "Simultaneisme"

Portrait of a German Officer

Marsden Hartley

American Modernism


- elegy to a lover killed in battle

- military-related images on a somber black background

- flattened, planar presentation reveals the influence of synthetic cubism

The Steerage

Alfred Stieglitz

American Modernism


- waged a life long campaign for photography as a fine art

- "straight photographic" image taken on an ocean liner is a haunting mixture of human activity and found patterns of forms


Joan Miro



- Miro promoted automatism

- began his painting with random doodles and completed the composition with forms suggesting floating amoebic organisms


the creation of art without conscious control

The Treachery of Images

Rene Magritte



- the discrepancy between Magritte's meticulously painted briar pipe and his caption, "this is not a pipe" challenges the viewer's reliance on the concious and rational in the reading of visual art

Migration Series

Jacob Lawrence

Harlem Renaissance


- series of 60 paintings documenting African American life in the North

- Lawrence's depiction of a segregated dining room underscored that the migrants had not left discrimination behind

American Gothic

Grant Wood

American Regionalism


- in reaction to modernist abstract painting, the Midwestern Regionalism movement focused on American subjects

- painting of an Iowa farmer and his daughter became an American icon

Number 1 (Lavender Mist)

Jackson Pollock

Abstract Expressionism


- Pollock's paintings are pure abstractions that emphasize the creative process

- his mural-size canvases consist of rhythmic drips, splatters, and dribbles of paint that draw viewers into a lacy spider web

Woman I

William de Kooning

Abstract Expressionism


- rooted in figuration

- included pictures of female models on advertising billboards

- displays the energetic application of pigment typical of gestural abstraction

Vic Heroicus Sublimis(Sublime Heroic Man)

Barrett Newman

Color Field


- Newman's canvases consist of a single slightly modulated color field split by "zips" (narrow bands) running from one edge of the painting to the other, energizing the color field and giving it scale

Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing?

Richard Hamilton

Pop Art


- the fantasy interior of the collage of figures and objects cut from glossy magazines reflects the values of modern consumer culture

- toying with mass media imagery typifies British Pop Art


Roy Lichtenstein

Pop Art


- Comic books appealed to Lichtenstein because they were a mainstay of popular culture, meant to be read and discarded

- immortalized comics on large canvases

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare

Joseph Beuys

Performance Art


- one person event

- Beuys coated his head with hone and gold leaf and spoke to a dead hare

- assuming the role of a shaman, he used stylized actions to evoke a sense of mystery and sacred ritual

The Homeless Projection

Krzysztof Wodiczko

Social and Political Commentary


- to publicize the plight of the homeless

- projected on the walls of a monument on Boston Common images of them with their plastic bags containing their few possessions

Napoleon Leading the Army Over theAlps

Kehinde Wiley

Identity (National or Group)


- Wiley's trademark paintings are reworking of famous portraits in which he substitutes young African American men in contemporary dress in order to situate them in the "field of power"

Allegiance and Wakefulness

Shirin Neshat

Identity (National or Group)


- Neshat's photographs address the repression of women in post revolutionary Iran

- She poses in traditional veiled gard but wields a rifle and displays militant Farsi poetry on her exposed body parts

Spiral Jetty

Robert Smithson

Site Specific Work


- used industrial equipment to create Environmental artworks by manipulating earth and rock

- a mammoth coil of black basalt, limestone, and earth extending into Great Salt Lake