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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Giotto, Overview of Arena Chapel, 1305

- located in Padua

- 38 scenes from life of Christ and Madonna

- dedicated to Virgin of Charity

- for the Scrovegni family

Giotto, Meeting at the Golden Gate, 1305

- in Arena Chapel

- understanding of human emotions/nature

- figures placed in purposeful spatial relationships

Giotto, Kiss of Judas, 1305

- in Arena Chapel

- mysterious back , orientation

- contrast between Christ's profile and bestial/ape-like features of Judas

- age-old confrontation of good and evil

- flanked by two subplots

Giotto, Last Judgement, 1305

- entrance wall

- depicts Enrico Scrovegni presenting monument to Mary

- asking for forgiveness for earning money in scandalous way

- paying homage to significance of Scrovegni family

Giotto, Enthroned Madonna with Saints, 1305

- commissioned for high altar of Church of Ognissanti in Florence

- sculptural, volumetric presentation of figure

- spatial concepts, greater spatial grounds

- translated paintings from Greek to Latin

Giotto, Stigmatization of St Francis, 1330

- upper entrance of Bardi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

- sense of landscape and emotion

Giotto, Funeral of St Francis, 1330

- characteristic Giotto backs

- faces express powerful emotion

- his late style reaches a new plateau of calm and breadth (head of brother looking upward in wonder painted quickly to illustrate astonishment)

- had been a tomb attached to the painting and was later taken down

Giotto, Bell Tower of Florence Cathedral, 1330

- more elegant, multi-story than the plans

- only partially finished at his death (1 story)

- white, rose, green marble from Tuscany

- 2 other artists commissioned to finish

Andrea Pisano, South Bronze Doors, 1340

- baptistry of the city of Florence

- gilded bronze and gold leaf tainted by pollution

- most gifted sculptor working in such realistic manner of representation

- life of Saint John the Baptist

Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1405

- lost competition for new bronze doors sponsored by Guild of Importers of Woolen Cloth

- original, daring poses and observation of natural movement

- not as much of a sense of harmony and balance as is present in his later works

- profoundly human interpretation

- new, naturalistic style

Lorenzo Ghiberti, North Bronze Doors, 1405-1425

- won the commission of east doors (which moved to north)

- New Testament, 2 bottom tiers are virtues, top are story of Christ

- emphasizes flowing, graceful minds

- International Gothic style becomes old-fashioned

- gives depth, mass, volume for increasing realism; a real sense of body

Lorenzo Ghiberti, St John the Baptist, 1415

- located in Orsanmichele, Florence

- patron saint of Guild of Importers of Woolen Cloth (same as who commissioned doors)

- penetrating, incised eyes

- greater sense of flow of drapery with a body beneath

- statue done in bronze as was for the wealthy

Donatello, Marble David, 1415

- commissioned for buttress of Florence Cathedral

- effects were lost as such a great height; slightly below life size so reworked to be looked at from below and enlarged in 1416

- set up in town hall as a political symbol of the Florentine Republic; valiant

- tense and sometimes deliberately harsh; not flowing

- boy stands proudly yet awkwardly; elevated chin and pose assert awareness of triumph

Donatello, St George, 1415

- Orsanmichele, Florence

- commissioned by Guild of Armors and Sword makers (his own guild)

- marble (poor guilds) with bronze helmet and sword

- predella (base): St George battling dragon with squashed relief

- optical distortion

Nanni di Banco, Four Crowned Martyrs, 1415

- Orsanmichele, Florence

- commissioned by Guild of Workers in Wood and Stone (di Banco was a member)

- white marble

- most famous/greatest known work

- most influenced by classical Roman art

- extension of space by toes hanging over edge

- gives sense of body beneath the drapery/folds; fully modeled details, not simply carved

- tabernacle draped in folds

Nanni di Banco, Assumption of the Virgin, 1415

- gable on the Porta della Mandorla, Florence Cathedral

- commissioned by Opera del Duomo

- mandorla shape used religiously in western/Christian art

- Virgin holds real piece of silk

- flying folds envelop powerfully modeled figures

- faces full of individuality, energy, beauty, all hallmarks of Renaissance style

Donatello, Zuccone, 1430

- on Campanile: was necessary to adopt drastic measures given great height (60 ft)

- daring new realism/departure from tradition: daring to be ugly; new world not to be rejected

- incises eyes, chisels stubble

- not elegance of Ghiberti

- downwards gaze with optical distortion

- Old Testament prophets/New Testament saints usually dignified characters: Donatello creates emaciated prophets who throb with import of divinely inspired messages and devastation of their rejection

- stances and expressions convey intensity of prophetic books of Old Testament

Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, 1425-1452

- east doors of Baptistery in Florence

- gilded bronze

- last of bronze doors, his last great work

- square panels: not fancy shapes of north doors

- Paradiso = space between baptistry and cathedral where pope would make sacrament

- new conception of 3D space (affect of Donatello)

- continuous narrative within framework

Ghiberti, Story of Abraham, 1430

- Gates of Paradise panel

- high and low relief, gives greater sense of atmosphere

- another Sacrifice of Isaac shows evolution of Ghiberti (previous had lower relief)

Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, 1430

- dome inspired by fresco in Santa Maria Novella church

- previous attempts at dome didn't have enough architectural/engineering know-how

- inner and outer ribs with herringbone structure to distribute stress

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1419-mid 15th century

- funded by Silk Guild

- attached to Church of Annunciation and paid for by wealthy family donations

- first orphanage in modern Europe

- anonymous giving of child continued until 18th century

- Florence is center of human rights/social history

- extremely mathematic in its design

- use of arches has no ancient precedent

Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel (altar wall), 1420-1464

- located in Santa Croce, Florence

- Chapter House for the monastery of Santa Croce (Franciscan Friars of Florence)

- commissioned by Pazzi Family

- mathematical plan characteristic of Brunelleschi

- details set out in pietra serena against white stucco walls, vaults, dome; color provided by stained-glass window, terra-cotta reliefs, Pazzi coat of arms

Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel (exterior), 1420-1464

- finished post mortum; probably too extravagant for his liking

Alberti, Santa Maria Novella, 1465

- commissioned by Giovanni Rucellai

- white and green marble (native to Florence)

- only Florentine church facade to be completed during the Renaissance

- flawlessly decoratively united narrow upper story temple with wider lower story with volutes; hid straight slopes of roof lines behind elegant double curves

Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1430

- Sacristy of Santa Trinita, Florence

- commissioned by Palla Strozzi for family burial chapel

- Strozzi were most influential/wealthy banking family, rivals of the Medici

- best example of "modern" art

- sense of landscape

- costly, aristocratic manner of painting with extravagance of gold with nature

- depicts investiture into knighthood but painting basically hidden in private chapel because investiture would not have been accepted by Florentines

- if Strozzi had been successful in exiling Medici the painting style would have stuck

- have predella panel

- experimenting with more mystical light effects

Masaccio, Expulsion, 1430

- located in Brancacci Chapel

- monumental nudes

- abandoned physical contest between Adam and angel

- made elegance of International Gothic style old-fashioned

- Adam ignores nakedness to bury face in hands: shame, grief, embarrassment

- censored in Baroque period with fig leaves

- Eve with clear reference to classical antiquity (Venus of Modesty pose) shown with sexual awareness but throws head back in cry of despair

Masolino, Temptation, 1430

- located in Brancacci Chapel

- gentle Adam and equally mild Eve, undisturbed

- nude flesh appears naturally soft, feet hang instead of realistically support

- elegantly silhouetted against the background appear as cutouts

- delicate presentation

Masaccio, Enthroned Madonna and Child, 1430

- Santa Maria del Carmine church, Pisa

- surviving central panel of polyptych

- classic comparison with Giotto

- small painting but Madonna gives a sense of monumentality

- behind Madonna is the crucifixion

- throne read as a work of architecture

- thought he maybe modeled a clay figure to get the folds of the cloth right; could help explain accuracy

- plain faces

- haloes parallel to the picture plane with exception of that of Christ Child which is foreshortened in depth; transitional nature of painting during 1420s

Masaccio, Trinity with Mary, John the Evangelist and Two Donors, 1430

- located in Santa Maria Novella

- commissioned by Domenico Lenzi

- donors probably Domenico Lenzi and his wife

- architecture conforms so closely to that of Brunelleschi he must have been credited with design of architectural illusion

- skeleton and text with religious imagery is related to tomb iconography; beneath floor in front of fresco was a tomb where probably Lenzi and his wife are buried

- patron and wife placed in front of enframing architecture to suggest they exist within our space; tomb enclosing skeleton suggests it exists partly in our space and partly recessed into wall; occupies both realms and reinforces words of inscription

- skeleton alludes not to patron but to Adam, over whose tomb it is believed Christ was crucified

- fresco refers to both original sin of Adam and Eve and redemptive power of Christ's Crucifixion

- Christ is a Christus mortuus, has endured pain and is now past suffering

- virtually perfect one-point perspective

Angelico, Descent from the Cross, 1430

- burial chapel in Sacristy of Santa Trinita, Florence

- commissioned by Palla Strozzi, originally wanted Laurence Monaco who painted the frame

- pointed, conservative frame

- conservative gold background with elegant lines

- Strozzi wanted complement for Adoration of Magi

- principal anti-Medici faction: piece had to be completed before Cosimo Medici came back from exile in 1434

- using new, realistic style: sense of human body, weight, mass

- effect of atmosphere, landscape

- elegant representation of real life

- triptych: 3 scenes in one panel

- Early Renaissance had 2 paths: realistic style of Masaccio or religious style of Angelico

- exploits Gothic arches of frame, utilizing central panel for cross and ladders and anchoring bases of arches to gates of Jerusalem on one side and grove of trees on the other

- presents us with world in which every shape is clear, every color bright and sparkling

- unique how he controlled resources of new naturalism and none could match harmony of figures and landscape

Angelico, Madonna and Saints, 1430

- high altar of San Marco, Florence (one of two Dominican churches)

- commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici

- painting within a painting; illusionistic

- badly over-cleaned

- gold curtains seem to have just been parted to give us a view of the court of heaven

- perspective lines converge in center where Virgin is enthroned in Renaissance niche whose Corinthian order so closely related to Brunelleschi's new style, he perhaps taught Angelica

- lots more information in the book, pg 225

Lippi, Madonna and Child with Two Angels, 1460

- perhaps private Medici commission

- evolves from awkward painter to crystal, impish angels, sophistication

- detail in her crown

- wistful melancholy on Madonna's face

- romantic interpretation it was Lucrezia Buti (his lover) but whoever she was she was beautiful (modern interpretation does not accept this)

- elegance, finess, grace, sensuality

- painted frame is an illusion

- subtlety in crystalline crowns, not the solid gold dinner plate

- refinement of costume, especially the headdress with artfully pleated design and gigantic pearl

- beauty of high forehead, like a pearl itself

- enthusiasm for natural beauties; figures illuminated by a soft, all-over flow without harsh shadows and as a result the sense of mass evident in his earlier work is reduced

Donatello, Bronze David, 1450

- private courtyard of Medici Palace

- commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici

- one of first free-standing bronze figures

- COMPARISON: marble vs bronze David

- bronze: more feminine, nude; glittering effect of gold in hair, boots, head; young representation of David which was popular in private guests (David over Goliath symbolizes Christ over Satan)

- risky/presumptive commission because of political situation

- mysterious expression, expresses a cold detachment

- laurel crown and wreath probably allusions to Medici family

Donatello, Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata, 1450

- in front of Basilica of Sant'Antonio, Piazza del Santo, Padua

- authorized by a decree of Venetian Senate; funds provided by Gattamelata's family

- realized effect of high base and vast space it was to occupy so he restricted design to bold masses and powerful tensions

- tail and front hoof form taut arcs

- diagonal formed by general's baton and sword ties composition together from above horse's head down to hind leg

- created majestic image of command

- created the ideal man of the Renaissance

Piero della Francesca, Baptism of Christ, 1450

- center panel of an altarpiece

- located in Borgo Sansepolcro

- commissioned by member of Graziani family and by Opera of Pieve of San Giovanni

- one of first painters to implement absolute, perfect like Alberti

- frozen, blond style with pale blonde, pale olive, rose tonalities; not what will eventually please Florence because it's unsympathetic

- geometric painter: clarity, line, sculptural, paler tonalities, appropriated (like modern Florentine art)

- taught by Domenico Veneziano

- gets his color scheme from Veneziano's Our Saint Lucy's altar; neither lasted in Florence

- landscape reveals command in developments of naturalism

- develops relationship between tree trunk and legs, both equally rooted in the earth

- similarly have to look twice to distinguish white dove from clouds

- no reference to God the Father or the hand of God; apparently the blue sky will do

Francesca, Resurrection, 1450

- located in town hall of Sansepolcro

- commissioned by chief magistrates of Sansepolcro for their state chamber

- viewpoint of enframing columns suggests it was originally painted rather high on the wall

- theme appropriate because tomb of Christ was symbol of Sansepolcro and appeared on its coat of arms

- represented Resurrection not as historical even but as timeless truth

- became popular in modern art movement c. 1900, not at the time of its creation (also wasn't readily accessible because it wasn't in Florentine collections)

- rigid frontality, fearful quality, grandeur; frozen in positions

- painted with tremendous clarity, clear contrast, emphasis on line (very Italian quality), strong colors

- stark qualities, rigidly rising out of tomb; not interested in atmosphere

- trees on left are barren and those on right are full: analogy to what he said on the way to the Calvary; also a reference to Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil and the Tree of Life, standing together in the Garden of Eden as told in Genesis

Francesca, Invention of the True Cross and Recognition of the True Cross, 1450

- behind high altar of San Francesco church, Arezzo

- commissioned by Bacci familiy in late 1430s

- part of The Legend of the True Cross frescoes

- portrait of Arezzo depicts Jerusalem

- use of dramatic foreshortening with the cross

- all still frozen: postures, positions of figures

- painted first Renaissance-style church front: influence of Alberti

- middle eastern hats on far right: represent exotic, non-Christian people; the non-believers, the others (Eastern orthodox and Catholic conflict)

- distinction between historical architectural styles: Tuscan houses with Romanesque campanile

- two episodes depicted

Piero della Francesca, Annunciation, 1450

- Legend of the True Cross, Arezzo

- relies heavily on natural lighting from church; mystical interior light

- Gabriel holding a palm frond, not the typical lily representing virginity: symbol of eternal light; told to paint this by member of Franciscan Church

- influence of Alberti in architecture

- strong Madonna, sculptural, no sense of realism with overly life-size

- venerable God above, releasing dove that has since disappeared

Piero della Francesca, Flagellation of Christ, 1450

- located in Urbino

- no evidence of commissioner, most likely private piece

- flogging of Christ in the background, 3 unidentified figures in the foreground

- architecture from Alberti; bronze sculpture of sun god is a reference to Pagan Antiquity

- E oriental hat in back left: shows up throughout works

- "Convenerunt in unum": They came together as one; reference to 3 figures

- suggested that picture refers allegorically to capture/threat of Constantinople by Turks

- torments inflicted on Church (mystical body of Christ) easily symbolized by Flagellation

- pearl illuminating panel above Christ

- slightly below eye level so foreground figures loom grandly

- pale blond tonalities; clarity to light; elaborate, mathematical architecture

- argued this embodies Albertian ideal of absolute and perfect painting

Piero della Francesca, Madonna and Child with Saints, 1475

- in Church of San Bernardino, Urbino

- commissioned by Federico da Montefeltro

- Montefeltro is kneeling in front and isn't balanced; wanted to honor recently deceased wife, he's in deep mourning

- ostrich egg hangs above, a symbol of the Virgin Birth; ostrich also an absent mother, a reference to Battista

- Christ child sleeping as if in death; coral around the neck symbolizing good luck (thought to be dragon's blood)

- honoring wife through her absence: there HAD to be a reason not to balance

- rose and gold brocade of Madonna's tunic repeated in Federico's cape

- stillness reigns throughout

Piero della Francesca, Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, 1475

- commissioned by Federico at least 2 years after her death for private viewing

- believed Battista is taken from death mask because of the stiffness and white

- Federico in red for becoming a Duke; darker skin because he's still alive

- in portrait because he lost an eye and broke his nose in a sword blow

- landscape is Gulbia in western Umbria where Battista gave birth to son and died; matches up between the two panels

- unsparing realism with inner nobility; tilted heads create effect of grandeur

- lighting illuminates Battista and puts Federico in shadow

- most private and only secular painting we've seen thus far

- oil painting, a northern European style

Perugino, Christ Giving the Keys to St Peter, 1480

- commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV

- located in Sistine Chapel

- possible that the man in red is a self portrait

- 1 point linear perspective

- soft, moon-shaped Umbrian faces

- round domed building leads eyes to the background; also figures lead eyes to back of piazza

- structures are in pristine condition

- figures to scale; no monumentality

- references to Classical antiquity; archaeological accuracy including Roman triumphal arch (reference to antiquity, Paganism, fall of Constantine)

- clarity, understanding in the material - something Leonardo will react against

- Florentine spatial compositions usually enclosed by frame, figures, architecture, but Perugino allows the eye to wander freely throughout the piazza, filled with little but sunlight and air and open at the sides so we can imagine its extension

- such a big piazza would have been impractical and hardly a good example of urban planning

- here it provides a sense of liberation

- perspective blocked by buildings but eyes extend to hills on the horizon

- figures are superficially Florentine; stand with ease without tension notable in works of Florentine painters: weight placed on one foot, hip moved slightly to side, one knee bent, head tilted

- figures occupy a shallow foreground plane and grace of their stance with flowing drapery and looping motion carries the eye across the foreground from one figure to the next

Perugino, Crucifixion with Saints, 1480

- panel painting

- shows influence from the Netherlands

- differs from Florentine depictions of this scene in the absence of strong emotion

- Christ hangs calmly and none of the saints betray a trace of grief

- sweet, charming world despite the scene

- hope; beauty - the Mediterranean

- Mary echoes John's position almost perfectly, ballet-like: helps create a calm, lucid quality

- classic Italian art

- body is sacred - even Christ in this space looks serene, full of hope; salvation

- we can accept the absence of emotion because of the cool and silvery colors, the sensitivity and exactness of the finish, the poetic qualities of the mood

Pintoricchio, Piccolomini Library Frescoes, 1505

- commissioned by Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini; a series honoring an illustrious relative who became Pope Pius II

- in Siena Cathedral

- 1503: Cardinal becomes Pope Pius III for 10 days and dies (poisoned?); family continues commission

- known for extravagance

- completed on the eve of the Sistine Chapel before Michelangelo started the ceiling

- shows the influence of excavating antique Roman sites with Roman painting

- success of his work can't be gauged by reproductions because so much of the appeal depends on their large scale and relation of paintings to the spaces for which they were painted

- Perugino's coworker in the Sistine Chapel

Pintoricchio, Departure of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini for Basel, 1505

- use of gold, blue; appear to be looking through a balcony

- Silvius is secretary to cardinal

- one of the earliest depictions of a realistic looking storm and rainbow: made convincing by dark veils of rain, bent by the force of the wind, dramatic color of the thunderclouds

- ships at anchor in the port to right, carinal's galleys lashed by a storm at the left

- clear, elegant, delicate

- doesn't cross the threshold into high Renaissance art

- shows moon-faced, sweet figures - NOT Florentine

- to human scale; it will take Michelangelo to break this

- clearly lit