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90 Cards in this Set

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Can describe the world we see around us and reveal the psychological worlds within us; we are blue with sorrow, or red with rage.
We exist in space; we occupy space and space envelops us.
Allows us to develop into what we are capable of being; time ultimately takes from us what we have been.
We are all in motion through space, in a solar system that is traversing the rim of our galaxy at thousands of miles per second, or rotating on the surface of our own globe at a thousand miles per hour.. Yet it is the smaller motion, the motion of lifting an arm or of riding through a field, that we are more likely to sense and hence to represent in art.
Language of art
Made up of visual elements (design, style, form, and content).
A characteristic manner or mode of artistic expression or design.
All that is contained in a work of art; the visual elements, subject matter, and underlying meaning or themes.
Pop artist
Someone who paints pop art, which is an art style originating in the 1960's that uses commercial and popular images and themes as its subject matter.
When you make or observe and outline, you are describing or suggesting the edge of a form or a shape.
Drawing or painting small dots or dabs to create shading or a dappled effect.
Fine parallel lines drawn or engraved to represent shading.
Intersecting sets of parallel lines used to shade a drawing. (A series of lines run in different directions and cross one another.)
Contour hatching
Is created when hatching changes direction.
The mass or bulk of a 3-dimensional work; the amount of space such a work contains.
In painting, a large area of one form or color; in 3-D art, the bulk of an object. Also see implied mass and actual mass.
Actual mass
The physical mass of an object as determined by its weight. Contrast with implied mass.
Implied mass
The apparent mass of a depicted object as determined, for example, by the use of forms or fields of color. Contrast with actual mass. (They create the illusion of possessing volume, having weight, and occupying 3-D space.)
Geometric shape
A shape that is regular, easy to measure, and easy to describe, as distinguished from organic or biomorphic shape, which is irregular, difficult to measure, and difficult to describe. (Are found in the geometric figures such as rectangles and circles, they are regular and precise, and have an unnatural, mathematical appearance.)
Organic shape
A shape characteristic of living things and thus appearing soft, curvilinear, and irregular. Contrast with geometric shape. (Resemble organisms found in nature (the forms of animals and plant life), they have a natural appearance, most are soft, curvilinear, and irregular, though some are harsh and angular.)
Rectilinear shape
Rectilinear - Characterized by straight lines. (When straight lines intersect to form them.)
Curvilinear shape
Curvilinear - Consisting of a curved line or lines. (When curving lines intersect to form them or when they circle back to join themselves and make up closed geometric figures.)
A 20th century style developed by Picasso and Braque that emphasizes the 2-dimensionality of the canvas, characterized by multiple views of an object and the reduction of form to cubelike essentials.
Biomorphic shape
Biomorphic - having the form of a living organism.
Amorphous shape
Amorphous - Without clear shape or form.
Visible spectrum ranges from violet to red.
Visible light
That segment of the spectrum of electromagnetic energy that excites the eyes and produces visual sensations.
Value contrast
The degrees of difference between shades of gray.
Value pattern
The variation in light and dark within a work of art and the ways in which they are arranged within a composition, can be low-contrast or high-contrast.
Descriptive value
Expressive value
Abstract Expressionist
Abstract Expressionism - A style of painting and sculpture of the 1950's and 1960's in which artists expressionistically distorted abstract images with loose, gestural brushwork. Also see expressionistic.
Post-impressionism - A late 19th century style that relies on the gains made by Impressionists in terms of the use of color and spontaneous brushwork but that employs these elements as expressive devices. The Post-impressionists, however, rejected the essentially decorative aspects of Impressionist subject matter.
A transparent, polygonal body that breaks down white light into the colors of the visible spectrum.
Cool color
A color such as a blue, green, or violet that appears to be cool in temperature and tends to recede spatially behind warm colors.
Warm color
Colors-reds, oranges, and yellows-that appear to be warm and to advance toward the viewer. Contrast with cool colors.
Coloring matter that is usually mixed with water, oil, or other substances to make paint.
Analogous colors
Colors that lie next to one another on the color wheel and share qualities of hue as a result of the mixture of adjacent hues; harmonious hues.
Op artist
Op art - A style of art dating from the 1960's that creates the illusion of vibrations through afterimages, disorienting perspective, and the juxtaposition of contrasting colors. Also called "optical art" or "optical painting."
Local color
The hue of an object created by the colors its surface reflects under normal lighting conditions (contrast with optical color). Color that is natural rather than symbolic for the depicted objects. (The hue of an object as created by the colors its surface reflects under normal lighting conditions.)
Optical color
The perception of the color of an object, which may vary markedly according to atmospheric conditions. Contrast with local color. (Our perceptions of color, which can vary with lighting conditions.)
Impressionism - A late 19th century style characterized by the attempt to capture the fleeting effects of light by painting in short strokes of pure color.
Symbolic color
Feelings and behavior are symbolized with color; green with envy, red with anger, blue with sorrow, white with fright, and are culture-specific.
Application of a medium such as oil or acrylic paint so that an actual texture is built up on a surface.
Actual texture
The texture of an object or picture, as determined by the sense of touch. Contrast with visual texture.
It is actual texture.
Visual texture
Simulated texture in a work of art; the use of line, color, and other visual elements to create the illusion of various textures in flat drawings and paintings. Contrast with abstract texture.
Subversive texture
Texture that is chosen or created by artists to foil or undermine our ideas about the objects that they depict. (Compels the viewer to look again at an object and to think about it more deeply.)
Third dimension
Creating the illustion of depth (as referred to the 2-D.)
Relative size
The size of an object or figure in relation to other objects or figures or the setting. See scale. (When things that are supposed to be closer to the viewer are larger, and vice versa for smaller/farther away.)
Vanishing point
In linear perspective, a point on the horizon where parallel lines appear to converge.
In linear perspective, the imaginary line (frequently, where the earth seems to meet the sky) along which converging lines meet. Also see vanishing point.
Vantage point
The actual or apparent spot from which a viewer observes an object or picture.
Atmospheric perspective
An illusion of depth created through grades of texture and brightness, color saturation, and warm and cool colors. An indistinct or hazy effect produced by distance and the illusion of distance in visual art (the term derives from recognition that the atmosphere between the viewer and the distant objects would cause the effect). (The illusion of depth is created by techniques such as texture gradients, brightness gradients, color saturation, and the manipulation of warm and cool colors.)
Aerial perspective
Another name for Atmospheric Perspective.
Texture gradient
The relative roughness of nearby and distant objects in 2-D media; nearby objects are usually rendered with more detailed and rougher surfaces than distant objects. (Closer objects are perceived as having rougher or more detailed surfaces.)
Brightness gradient
The relative degree of intensity in the rendering of nearby and distant objects, used to create and illusion of depth in a 2-D work. (Lesser intensity of distant objects.)
Actual motion
The passage of a body or an object from one place to another. Contrast with implied motion.
Stopped time
In photography, an image that captures action in midmovement by exposing the film very briefly.
Surrealism - A 20th century art style whose imagery is believed to stem from unconscious, irrational sources and that therefore takes on fantastic forms. Although the imagery is fantastic, it is often rendered with extraordinary realism.
Implied motion
An impression of movement created by the use of visual elements, composition, or content. Contrast with actual motion. (Implys that motion has occurred or that time has passed.)
Illusion of motion
Suggests that motion is in the process of occurring rather than having occurred.
Implied time
An impression of time's passage through the depiction of events that occur over a period of time.
Repetitive imagery
Futurism - An early 20th century style that portrayed modern machines and the dynamic character of modern life and science.
The lingering impression from a stimulus that has been removed. The afterimage of a color is its complement. Also see complementary color.
Stroboscopic motion
The creation of the illusion of movement by the presentation of a rapid progression of stationary images, such as the frames of a motion picture.
Chapter 2 - 3 Study Questions:
1) Define and list the design principles?
Unity is one of the principles of design, and like visual elemets are part of the basic language of art. Design or composition is a proces, the act of organizing the visual elements to effect a desired aesthetic in a work of art. (Unity and variety, balance, emphasis and focal point, rhythm, scale, and proportion are all design principles.)
3) How do you create the illusion of 3-D in shading using line in a drawing?
Contour lines are created by the edges of things. They are perceived when 3-D shapes curve back into space. Edges are perceived because the objects differ from the backgrounds in value (lighter versus darker), texture, or color.)
5) What is form & mass?
7) What is actual texture?
Actual texture is tactile, when you touch an object, your fingertips register sensations of its actual texture - rough, smooth, sharp, hard, and soft. Any work of art has actual texture - whether it is hard, cold texture of marble, or the rough texture of pigment on canvas.
9) What is tromp l’oeil?
It is the ability of the artist to fool the eye, tromp l'oeil (French for "trick the eye"), and has made an appearance throughout the history of art since the 1st century BCE.
10) What does an icon mean?
12) Review perspective. What era was linear perspective highly defined?
The Greeks and Romans had some idea of linear perspective, but in the Renaissance, artists such as Leonardo da Vinci refined it.
A design principle that focuses the viewers attention on one or more parts of a composition by accentuating certain shapes, intensifying value or color, featuring directional lines, or strategically placing the objects and images.
The distribution of the weight, mass, or other elements of a work of art so as to achieve harmony.
Actual Balance
Equal distribution of weight. Contrast with pictorial balance.
Pictorial Balance
The distribution of the apparent or visual weight of elements in 2-dimensional works of art. Contrast with actual balance.
Bilateral Symmetry
Mirror-type similarity between the sides of a composition. Also termed "pure" or "formal" symmetry.
Vertical Balance
Balance in which the elements in the top and bottom of the composition are in balance.
Diagonal Balance
Regular Repetition
The systematic repetition of the visual elements in a work to create rhythm.
Canon of Proportions
A set of rules governing the proportions of the human body as they are to be rendered by artists.
The organization of the visual elements in a work of art.
Visual Unity
The unity in a work of art as created by use of visual elements. Contrast with conceptual unity.
Conceptual Unity
Unity in a work that is achieved through the relationship between the meaning and function of the images.
Variety within Unity