• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

248 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the highest peacetime award for valor?
The Soldiers Medal
During peacetime, who is the approving authority for the Soldier's Medal?
What is an Award?
A decoration, medal, badge, ribbon, or appurtenance bestowed on an individual or a unit
What is a decoration?
An award to an individual for a specific act of gallantry or service
What is DA Form 3931?
Certificate of Appreciation
What are the six groups that individual awards can be categorized into?
Good Conduct Medal
Service Medals
Service Ribbons
Badges and Tabs
Certificates and Letters
What is the highest award given by the Army in time of war?
The Medal of Honor
How many stars are on the blue silk shield that the Army Medal of Honor is suspended from?
Who is the approving authority for the Medal of Honor?
The U.S. Congress
Who awards the Medal of Honor?
The President of the United States
What is the word inscribed on the suspension bar of the Medal of Honor?
What is the order of precedence for the wearing of individual awards?
1. U.S. Military Decorations
2. U.S. Non-Military Decorations
3. Prisoner of War Medal
4. Good Conduct Medal
5. U.S. Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal
6. U.S. Service Medals and Service Ribbons
7. U.S. Merchant Marine Decorations
8. Foreign Decorations (Does not include Service Medals and Ribbons)
9. Non-U.S. Service Medals and Ribbons
Name the ribbon awarded to members of the US Army for successful completion of the Basic and AIT?
The Army Service Ribbon
What is the time limit for recommending an award?
Two Years
How many "V" devices may be worn on a ribbon?
Not more than 1
The "V" Device is authorized for wear on what decorations?
Distinguished Flying Cross
Bronze Star Medal
Air Medal
Joint Service Commendation Medal
How many different weapons are authorized component bars?
For what is the Good Conduct Medal given?
For exemplary behavior, efficiency, and fidelity
What three words are inscribed on the front of the Good Conduct Medal?
Honor, Efficiency, and Fidelity
Who is the approving authority for the Good Conduct Medal?
The Company Commander
How often do you get the Good Conduct Medal?
Every 3 years
Who are the final approving authorities for the AAM, ARCOM, MSM, LM and DSM?
1. AAM = Lieutenant Colonel and above
2. ARCOM = Colonel and above
3. MSM = Major General and above
4. LM = Lieutenant General and above
5. DSM = U.S. Army Chief of Staff
Who can make recommendations for an award?
Any person having knowledge of an outstanding act or achievement
To whom is the Purple Heart awarded?
To anyone, military or civilian, wounded or killed in action against an armed enemy
What is the second highest award for valor?
The Distinguished Service Cross
What was the first medal awarded in the U.S. Army?
The Purple Heart
In the order of precedence, what are the Unit Decorations that can be awarded to a U.S. Army Unit?
Presedential Unit Citation
1. Joint Meritorious Unit Award
2. Valorous Unit Award
3. Meritorious Unit Commendation
4. Superior Unit Award
5. Citation in Orders
What was the Purple Heart initially awarded for?
It was awarded for valor in the revolutionary war
What is a DA Form 4950?
Good Conduct Medal Certificate
What decoration has George Washington's picture on it?
The Purple Heart
What is a DA Form 87?
Certificate of Training
What words are inscribed on the reverse side of the AAM?
For Military Achievement
What words are inscribed on the reverse side of the ARCOM?
For Military Merit
What is a Fourragere?
A ropelike device worn to signify the award of a foreign decoration
When can a unit award be worn?
When serving with a unit that received an award or if you were assigned to the unit when the award was assigned
Name the three Special Skill Tabs.
Ranger, Special Forces, Presidents Hundred
What Army Regulation covers the wear and appearance of the military uniform?
AR 670-1
Name three appurtenances
Oak leaf clusters, V-Devices, and numbers
What DA Form is used to recommend /request an award?
DA Form 638
What Army Regulation governs Awards and Decorations?
AR 600-8-22
When was the Medal of Honor established?
Why is the Purple Heart different than all the other decorations?
You cannot be recommended for the Purple Heart; instead you must meet specific criteria.
Who is the approving authority for the Army Achievement Medal?
The Battalion Commander
Who's profile is on the Medal of Honor?
Minerva, the Roman goddess of wisdom and righteous war
What is the DA Form 7013
Certificate of Acheivment
When was the NCO support channel formally recognized?
20 December 1976
What is Sergeant's Business?
To train and lead soldiers
What is a Sergeant?
A leader
Explain the Chain of Command.
The succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised
Define Responsibility
Being accountable for what you do
How does the Chain of Command support the NCO support channel?
By legally punishing those who challenge a sergeant's authority
Define Duty.
Duty is a legal or moral obligation to do what should be done without being told to do it.
What is the role of the CSM?
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Battalion commander
How does a Commander exercise command?
Through subordinate commanders
When was the position of Sergeant Major of the Army established?
4 July 1966
Is the CSM in the Chain of Command?
No (but he supervises the NCO support channel)
What are key elements of command?
Authority and Responsibility
What is the NCO Support Channel?
It is the channel of communication that reinforces the Chain of Command
What must a Sergeant have in order to accomplish Sergeant's Business?
The Skill, ability and Leadership to train soldiers for combat and lead them into combat
Define Military Courtesy
The respect soldiers show to each other
What is the meaning of a salute to the Flag of the U.S.A.?
A declaration of loyalty to the U.S. and to the principles of liberty and justice
What is the meaning of a hand salute?
It is a greeting exchanged between military personnel
What bugle call signals the beginning of a formal review?
Adjutant's call
What is the purpose of displaying courtesy to a senior?
Recognition of the position he or she holds
Can you salute as a prisoner?
No, you have lost the right to salute
When do you salute inside a building?
When reporting to your commander
• When reporting to a pay officer
• When reporting to a military board
• At an indoor ceremony
• At sentry duty indoors
What are some examples of when you are not required to salute?
• When working on a work detail
• When actively engaged in athletics
• On guard duty when a challenge is required
• When imprisoned
What is the origin of the Salute?
In early roman history, persons meeting would raise their hands in the air, palm forward to show that they held no weapons and were friendly. This has evolved into the present day salute.
Enlisted members generally do not exchange salutes, what are some examples of when they would exchange salutes?
• When rendering reports in formation
• When reporting to an enlisted president of a board
Who enters a vehicle first?
The junior enters first.... the senior leaves first
What is Reveille?
A ceremony in which the unit honors the U.S. flag when it is raised in the morning
What is considered the most important of all military courtesies?
The hand salute
What Army regulation covers Salutes, honors and visits of courtesy?
AR 600-25
When an Ex President of the U.S. arrives and leaves an army installation, how many gun salute does he get?
21 gun salute, both times
Where do you walk when walking with someone that is senior to you?
On the senior person's left
When meeting an officer in the open, how far away should you be before rendering the hand salute?
Approximately 6 paces when our paths will bring you close by, or within speaking distance when making eye contact.
Is an officer required to return the salute of an enlisted member?
When would you salute while in formation?
Only on the command "present arms"
What is the longest bugle call?
Tattoo- 28 bars long
What should you do if the National Anthem of a foreign country is played?
Outdoors- render the hand salute, Indoors- stand at attention
If you are standing outdoors in uniform and you hear "Retreat" being played, what should you do?
Face toward the flag or music, and come to attention, on the first note of "to the color", render the hand salute
If indoors when the national anthem is played, what should you do?
Face the flag or music and stand at attention, persons under arms should salute
Is it customary for warrant officers of the same branch of service to salute each other?
Who exits a military vehicle first?
The senior person, then in ascending order
Who salutes in a group of soldiers not in formation?
The first person to see the officer should call the group to attention and everyone should salute
What is the only time that you do not remove your headgear when reporting to an officer indoors?
When under arms
When are you considered to be under arms?
When you are carrying a weapon in your hand, by sling or by holster
How long is the call "to the colors"
40 seconds
How are military flags classified?
• Colors
• Standards
• Distinguished flags
• Ensigns
• Guidons
• Pennants
What are the recommended components of a burial escort for an enlisted person?
• Firing party
• Pallbearers
• Bugler
How long is Reveille?
20 seconds
What are the three marching steps used in drill?
30in step, 15in step, 18in step
(the 18in step is used when formally stacking arms, it is executed on the command of execution of ARMS in STACK ARMS.)
What FM covers Drill and Ceremony?
FM 3-21.5
What is a review?
A military ceremony
What are two prescribed formations for platoons?
1. Platoon online
2. Platoon in column
What is the primary purpose of drill and ceremony?
It enables leaders to move an individual or a unit from one place to another in an orderly manner. It also aids in disciplinary training by instilling habits of precision and response to a leaders orders.
What are the 4 rest positions that can be given at the halt?
1. Parade rest
2. Stand at ease
3. At ease
4. Rest
What is the primary value of ceremonies?
To render honors, preserve tradition, and to stimulate Esprit de Corps
What is a rank?
A line, which is only one element in depth
What foot is your leading foot?
Your left foot
What is the only command given from “Inspection Arms”?
“Ready, Port, Arms”
What is an element?
An individual, squad, section, platoon, company or larger unit forming part of the next higher unit
When marching, who is the only person in a platoon that is never out of step?
The platoon guide or leader
What is a file?
A column, which has a front of only one element
If you were marching a squad, when would you give the command "squad halt"?
When either foot strikes the ground
What is a formation?
The arrangement of elements of a unit in a prescribed manner
After weapons have been issued to a unit and all other soldiers have fallen in with their weapons, what is the next command that you should give?
Inspection arms
While passing the colors or while the colors are passing you, when is the hand salute rendered?
Six paces before and six paces after
What is quicktime cadence?
120 steps per minute
What is doubletime cadence?
180 steps per minute
What command is given to reverse the direction of a march?
Rear March
From what position are all stationary movements given?
Position of attention
On what foot would you give the command "Mark time march"?
On either foot
What is cover? (D&C)
Aligning yourself directly behind the man to your immediate front, while maintaining correct distance
How do you measure a "step”?
Heel to heel
What is depth?
The space from front to rear of a formation including front and rear elements
What is the interval between the preparatory command and the command of execution?
1 step or 1 count
What are the two parts of most drill command?
1. Preparatory command
2. Command of execution
How many steps does each rank take when a platoon is given the command of Open Ranks?
On the command "March", The first rank takes two steps forward, the second rank takes one step forward, the third rank stands fast and the fourth rank take two 15 inch steps to the rear
What are the 5 types of commands in a drill?
1. Two part
2. Combined
3. Supplementing
4. Directive
5. Mass
What position is the unit guidon once a preparatory command is given?
The raised vertical position
What are some examples of a combined command?
• At ease
• Fall in
• Rest
Who determines when reveille will be played in the morning?
The installation commander
Define Cadence
A uniform step and rhythm used in marching
When is the command Right Turn or Left Turn March used?
When marching elements of more than 4 columns abreast
What is an interval?
The lateral space between elements in a formation
What command is given to revoke a preparatory command?
As You Were
Who is responsible for training and appearance of the color guard?
What is a Guidon?
A flag that identifies a company, troop or battery
When executing a Rear March, on which foot do you pivot?
Both feet, turning 180 degrees to the right
What are the three methods used to teach Drill?
1. Step by step
2. By the numbers
3. Talk-through method
What 4 movements in marching require a 15-inch step?
1. Half step
2. Left step
3. Right step
4. Backward march
How many steps should separate platoons when a company is formed?
5 steps
Does the National color ever render a salute?
What is the only command that can be given from Inspection Arms, when performing drill with the M16?
Ready, Port Arms
What is the "Blue Book"?
A drill manual used by Baron Von Steuben (a former Prussian officer) to train the colonial army. It preceded the FM 3-21.5. It was known as "The regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States". This book was the first Army Field Manual
Can a command be changed after the command of execution has been given?
How far in front of the Honor Company or color company do the colors halt?
Ten steps
The Army's leadership doctrine states that soldiers must satisfy 4 leadership requirements. What are they?
1. Lead in peace to be prepared for war
2. Develop individual leaders
3. Develop leadership teams
4. Decentralize
Describe the "Be, Know and Do".
Army leadership begins with what the leader must BE, the values and attributes that shape a leader’s character. Your skills are those things you KNOW how to do, your competence in everything from the technical side of your job to the people skills a leader requires. But character and knowledge—while absolutely necessary—are not enough. You cannot be effective, you cannot be a leader, until you apply what you know, until you act and DO what you must.
What is a principle?
Principles are guidelines
What are the team building stages?
1. Formation
2. Enrichment
3. Sustainment
Name the 4 human needs
1. Physical
2. Security
3. Social
4. Higher (religious)
Is any one human need more important than the other?
What does Decentralization mean?
The release of authority for execution from senior to subordinate levels.
What does FM 22-100 cover?
Army Leadership (Be, Know, Do)
What does FM 7-0 cover?
Training the force
Define Leadership
The process of influencing others to accomplish a mission by providing purpose direction and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization.
What are the 4 major factors of leadership?
1. The led
2. The leader
3. The communication
4. The situation
What are the 11 principles of leadership?
1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement
2. Be technically and tactically proficient
3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions
4. Make sound and timely decisions
5. Set the example
6. Know your soldiers and look out for their well being
7. Keep your subordinates informed
8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your subordinates
9. Ensure the task is understood, supervised and accomplished
10. Build the team
11. Employ your unit in accordance with its capabilities
What are the 4 individual values that soldiers are expected to possess?
1. Courage
2. Candor
3. Competence
4. Commitment
What are the 5 steps to problem solving?
1. Recognize and define the problem
2. Gather facts and make assumptions
3. Develop possible solutions
4. Analyze and compare the possible solutions
5. Select the best solution
What are the three stages of the Character Development Pyramid?
1. Leaders teach values - subordinates learn from culture
2. Leaders reinforce values - subordinates comply
3. Leaders shape the ethical climate - subordinates internalize army values
What is communications?
The flow or exchange of information and ideas from one person to another
Name the two barriers of communications
1. Physical
2. Psychological
Name some physical barriers of communication
Noise of battle, distance
Define Motivation
Influencing people to want to do what you know must be done
Name the four indicators of good leadership
1. Proficiency
2. Discipline
3. Cohesion
4. Morale
Name some things in a unit that affect morale
• Mess
• Military justice
• Mail
• Supply
• Billets
What are the 4 elements of professional army ethics?
1. Loyalty
2. Duty
3. Selfless Service
4. Integrity
What are the 4 steps to the ethical decision making process?
1. Interpret the situation
2. Analyze the factors
3. Choose the course of action you feel will best serve the nation
4. Implement the course of action you have chosen
What is the definition of Ethics?
Ethics are principles or standards that guide professionals to do the right thing
Must a commander have an open-door policy?
What are Beliefs?
Beliefs are assumptions or convictions you hold as true about something, concept or person
What are Values?
Values are attitudes about the worth or importance of people, concepts or things
What are 2 types of counseling?
1. Event-oriented Counseling
2. Performance and Professional Growth
What are the requirements of successful counseling?
1. Establish communications
2. Get the person to feel at ease
3. Listen to the problem
4. Don't put the person down by showing him or her that their problem is common
5. Develop confidence between the counselee and yourself
What are the 5 basic rules of combat?
1. Move
2. Shoot
3. Communicate
4. Secure
5. Sustain
What are the five leadership styles?
1. Directing
2. Participating
3. Delegating
4. Transformational
5. Transactional
Can you delegate responsibility?
NO! Only authority can be delegated
What are the two modes of leadership?
1. Direct
2. Indirect
What are the levels of leadership?
1. Direct
2. Organizational
3. Strategic
What are the four skills a leader must have?
1. Interpersonal
2. Conceptual
3. Technical
4. Tactical
What are the attributes a leader must have?
1. Mental
2. Physical
3. Emotional
AAA What subjects are covered by these cards so far?
Awards and Decorations
Chain of Command
Customs and Courtesies
Drill and Ceremony
First Aid
What is Self Aid?
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
• Bayonet
• Rifle
• Entrenching tool
• Tent poles and stakes
• Web belt
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body?
What is the object of first aid?
To stop bleeding, overcome shock, relieve pain and prevent infection
What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
What is First Aid?
It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available
What is the unique feature of type "O" blood?
It is a universal donor
When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)
How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches
What are the 4 lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
1. Open the airway and restore breathing
2. Stop the bleeding
3. Dress and bandage the wounds to prevent infection
4. Prevent shock
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
Their own field dressing
How should the ends of an unimproved pressure dressing be tied?
In a non-slip knot directly over the wound site
What is manual pressure?
Place hand on dressing and exert firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
He should not eat or drink
Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding
What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
No, only qualified medical personnel can do that
How can you prevent athlete's foot?
Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Around a limb, between the injury and the heart, 2 to 4 inches above the wound and never placed directly on a joint
Name 3 categories of heat injuries
1. Heat cramps
2. Heat exhaustion
3. Heat stroke
What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
Muscle cramps of the abdomen, legs or arms
What is the treatment for heat cramps?
Move to shad, then loosen clothing and give cool water
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
• Headache
• Excessive sweating
• Weakness
• Dizziness
• Nausea
• Muscle cramps
• Pale moist skin
• Mental confusion
What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
Move to a cool area and loosen clothing, have the individual drink at least one canteen full of cool water, elevate legs and monitor their condition
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
What are signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
• Casualty stops sweating
• Skin is dry and hot
• Fast pulse
• Headache
• Dizziness
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Mental confusion
What is the treatment for heat stroke?
Immerse in coldest water available or remove clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport the individual to the nearest medical facility
What are two basic types of fractures?
1. Open (compound)
2. Closed (simple)
What are some signs of a fracture?
Deformity, pain at the site, discoloration
With an open fracture, what should you do first?
Stop the bleeding
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
"Splint them where they lie"
How tight should tourniquet be?
Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
What does the term Hemorrhage mean?
Heavy bleeding
What are the three types of bleeding?
1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat
2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
Name 4 common points for checking pulse
1. Carotid- The side of the neck
2. Femoral- The groin
3. Radial- The wrist
4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
• Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
• Restlessness and nervousness
• Thirst
• Loss of blood
• Confusion
• Fast breathing
• Nausea or vomiting
• Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
• Often perspires freely
• May pass out.
What is the treatment for shock?
“PELCRN” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)
1. Position the casualty on their back
2. Elevate the Legs
3. Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
4. Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
5. Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
6. Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
What is a heat injury?
A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body
What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
How do you stop bleeding?
• Apply a field dressing
• Manual pressure
• Elevate the limb
• Apply a pressure dressing
• Digital Pressure
• Apply a tourniquet
What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat
When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
• When a doctor tells you to stop
• When others relieve you
• When you cannot physically continue
• When the casualty starts to breath on his own
What is AIDS?
AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person's immune system
Name two types of rescue breathing
1. Mouth to mouth
2. Backpressure arm-lift method (Used in an NBC Environment when protective clothing may make it impossible to use the “mouth to mouth” method)
When would you use the backpressure arm-lift method of rescue breathing?
During a gas and biological attack because both of you can and will remain masked
What do the letters AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When the casualty has a:
• Head injury
• Abdominal wound
• Fractured (unsplinted) leg
How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
5 to 10 minutes
What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty?
Turn their head to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off
What does COLD stand for?
It is a key word in cold weather protection, it stands for Keep it CLEAN, Avoid OVERHEATING, Wear it LOOSE and in layers and Keep it DRY
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
Check for:
1. Responsiveness
2. Breathing
3. Pulse
4. Bleeding
5. Shock
6. Fractures
7. Burns
8. Possible concussions (head injuries)
What is the first indication of frostbite?
Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it
What do you do to treat frostbite?
Remove clothing from the affected area, warm with warm water or body heat, dress the area and seek additional medical help
When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?
As the individual breathes out
How should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?
On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure
What do you do with exposed abdominal organs?
Wrap them in dry clean material and place on top of the abdomen (never try to put them back in)
How do you take the Carotid pulse?
Place the first two fingers of your hand beside the casualties Adams' apple
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
1. Two-Man Support Carry
2. Two-Man Arms Carry
3. Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
4. Four-Hand Seat Carry
5. Two-Hand Seat Carry
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one-man methods?
1. Fireman's carry
2. Supporting carry
3. Arms Carry
4. Saddleback carry
5. Pack-strap carry
6. Pistol belt carry
7. Pistol belt drag
8. Neck drag
9. LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE
10. LBE Carry Using Casualty’s LBE
11. Cradle Drop Drag
Should you put any medication or cream on a burn?
Name the four types of burns
1. Thermal
2. Electrical
3. Chemical
4. Laser
What is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?
Lessen or prevent shock and infection
What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?
1. Urgent- within 2 hours
2. Priority- within 4 hours
3. Routine- within 24 hours
What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?
Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out
What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?
Remove the casualty from the source of the burn
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
1. The jaw thrust
2. Head tilt/chin lift methods
What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease?
Dental plaque
What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1. Unexplained runny nose
2. Unexplained headache
3. Sudden drooling
4. Difficulty seeing (dimness of vision and miosis)
5. Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing
6. Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of contaminated skin
7. Stomach cramps
8. Nausea
9. Tachycardia followed by bradycardia (Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid heartbeat wth a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute)
What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1. Strange or confused behavior.
2. Wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and coughing.
3. Severely pinpointed pupils.
4. Red eyes with tearing.
5. Vomiting.
6. Severe muscular twitching and general weakness.
7. Involuntary urination and defecation.
8. Convulsions.
9. Unconsciousness.
10. Respiratory failure.
11. Bradycardia.