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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Emotional appeal.

Ex. The twisted, starved skeletons of Germany's concentration camps are being repeated in the deserts of Darfur!
Appeal to the reliability of the speaker.

Ex. As a survivor of the Holocaust, I was shocked when I felt history repeat itself while I visited the Sudan.
Appeal to logic and reason.

Ex. Thus we can see that our interference is necessary.
Inductive Reasoning
Going from many specific observations to a general principle.

Ex. I've seen many birds in my life, and all of them have feathers. So all birds have feathers.
Deductive Reasoning
The application of a general principle to specific occasions.

Ex. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. So if I push against the table, it will push back with the same force.
A short statement form of syllogism.

Ex. Because pomegranate juice is a powerful antioxidant, it helps prevent cancer.
A set of major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. It builds the argument.

Ex. Antioxidants help prevent cancer.
Pomegranate juice has many antioxidants.
Pomegranate juice helps prevent cancer.
Toulmin Logic
The argumentation style developed by Stephen Toulmin. It consists of claim, reasons, warrant, grounds, backing, rebuttal, and qualifier.
The thesis; what is being argued.

Ex. Florence is the greatest city in the world.
What connects the grounds to claim.

Ex. Art and food are attributes of great cities.
Reinforces the warrant by defending it.

Ex. Most people, if you ask them, agree that art and food are necessary to have a great city.
Limit the claim.

Ex. Except for Paris and New York.
The information that supports the claim.

Ex. The food in Florence is rated among the best in the world. There are many masterpieces in the streets. The art museums are full of important pieces of art.
The reliability of the source; this supports evidence.

Ex. I have been to Florence, and experienced the art and food myself.
Conditions of Rebuttal
General objections to the argument.

Ex. Rome is a superior city.
The greatness of cities is relative and subjective.
Preemptively discredits conditions of rebuttal.

Ex. Some believe that Rome is a superior city to Florence. However, Florence's art is more recent, and the streets are less narrow.
Scare Tactics
Greatly exaggerating danger.

Ex. If we don't stop the carbon dioxide emissions, the ocean will boil to nothing and no place will be fit for human habitation!
Either-Or Choice
Oversimplifies the options into a one-or-the-other decision.

Ex. Either we can let the country descend into chaos, or we can send in more troops.
Slippery Slope
Assumes that one event will trigger a long chain of events and lead to horrible consequences.

Ex. Clicking that button will cause the world to be destroyed, even though it only starts a small song playing. That song will corrupt a mind that will become a dictator!
Sentimental Appeal
An appeal based on excessive emotion.

Ex. Help us and save a child from dying of hunger!
Appeals based on the reasoning that everyone is doing it.

Ex. This song is number one on iTunes. Listen to it.
Proves by asserting.

Ex. Meat is murder. Why? No reason is needed. Meat is murder.
Moral Equivalence
Doesn't offer levels of severity of right or wrong.

Ex. Lying is like genocide!
Ad Hominem
Attacks the opponent, not the opposing ideas.

Ex. You're wrong, because you smell bad and have no clue about using shampoo.
Hasty Generalization
Makes assertion without legitimate grounds.

Ex. Eating meat causes cancer, because no vegetarian I know has cancer.
Faulty Causalty/Post Hoc
Assumes that one thing that happened after another was caused by the second event.

Ex. After I ate that piece of cheesecake, the bus exploded. I will never eat cheesecake again.
Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning
The premises include the claim.

Ex. Love is all you need, because people need love exclusively.
The use of words in misleading, shifting meanings.

Ex. The river's banks are overflowing. Let's borrow money from them.
Non Sequitur
Two juxtaposed clauses do not logically connect.

Ex. You must give me pie, as I hate Hitler.
Straw Man
Misrepresents opposing argument in order to attack it.

Ex. Pro-choice people want babies to die, and thus we must stop them.
Faulty Analogy
Applies an analogy that is not an applicable comparison in the context.

Ex. The sky looked like the ocean. So fish can be gained from it.