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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Complexity?

* Social difference

What are organizations of societies?

* Hunter-Gatherer

* Bands

* Tribes

* Chiefdoms

* Early states

What are things about Megalithic Monuments?

* Burial structures, multiple individuals, re-used over time, usually has evidence for ritual activity

* Passage graves/Gallery graves/Dolmens(not reused)

* Gradually shifted from commual group orientation to acceptance of indiviuals of high status

* Visible marker of territory

What are things about Stonehenge?

* Sequence of monuments built over time, from 5000 to 3500 years ago

* Phase 1(5000) : Earthwork circle

* Phase 2(4500) : Burials, Aubrey holes

* Phase 3a : Bluestone

* Phase 3b : Inner circles

* Phase 3c-f : Rearrangement of bluestone and digging holes

* Used by over 80 generations

When did people settle on Northeast Court(BC)?

* Earliest occupation goes back to 14000 years ago near Haida Gwaii

* Coastal migration route from Beringia, possibly island hopping.

How was early culture of Namu?

* Goes back to 10600 years ago

* Separated into 2 regional groups, North(microblade) and South(leaf-shaped points and knives), although both had similar culture

* South had distinctive burial patterns : upright position, inclusion of grave goods

What are the things about Northwest Coast cultrue?

* 4500 ~ 3500 years ago

* Divided societies into noble/commoner/slave

* Feasting and warfare

* Tools made of bone/ground stone, coastally oriented subsistence

What is St. Mungo phase?

* 4500~3300 BP

* Chipped stone, ground stone artifacts, bone tools, burial, grave goods

* Decorative items and exotic foods as wealth

What is Locarno Beach Phase?

* 3500~2400 years ago

* Harpoon, slate points, abrader, needle, obsidian/crystal microblades

* Still coastally oriented subsistence

* More grave goods

What is Marpole Phase

* 2400~1500 years ago

* First clear evidence of social complexity

* Slate knives/points, celts, labrets, perforated stones, large needles, sculpture, antler harpoons

Gulf of Georgia Phase

* 1200~European contact

* Bone and antler artifacts, no chipped stone

* Fortified sites

* Altered landscapes(clam garden)

What is Poverty Point of Southwest?

* 3500 years ago, built by hunter-gatherers

* Abandoned due to temperature change and flooding

What is Adena?

* 3000~2200 years ago

* Agriculturalists, pottery makers

* Extensive trading

* Best known for mounds, functioning as burial sites, ceremonial centers, etc

* Smoking pipe and shamanism

What is Hopewell?

* More elaborate earthworks, wider trade network

* Even brought obsidian from 2500 miles away

What is Mississippian Culture?

* Maize agriculture

* Social ranking(mound)

* Cahokia

* Caddoan

What is Southeastern Ceremonial Complex?

* Artifacts associated with high ranking elites across Southeast

* Evidence of trade

What is Natchez Culture?

* Mississippian chiefdom still functioning at time of European contact

* Leader Great Sun lived on mound

What are 3 major cultures of Southwest?

1. Ancestral Puebloan(Anasazi)

2. Mogollon

3. Hohokam

What are things about Ancestral Puebloan?

* Basketmaker, corn agriculture

* Stored food under pithouse

What is Pueblo I Culture?

* 750-900 AD

* Pithouses were replaced with ground structure called Pueblos

* Kiva : Ceremonial structure

What is Pueblo II Culture?

* 900-1150 AD

* Construction of planned towns and roads, and trade of goods

* Chaco Canyon : ceremonial complex?

*Public architecture

* Not egalitarian

* Abandoned due to drought

What is Pueblo III Culture?

* 1100 - late 1200 AD

* Mesa Verde

* Grew as Chaco Canyon collapsed

* Cliff dwelling, T-shape window and door

* Also abandoned due to drought

What is Mogollon Pueblo Period?

* 1150-1400 AD

* Mogollon also began to live in Pueblos

* Gradually abandoned over 1355-1400

* Mimbres

What is Hohokam Culture?

* Similar to Puebloan but with desert adaptation and lack of cliff dwellings

* Agriculture relied on canal, excavated using hand tools

* Social stratification appeared by 900 AD, shown by house size and grave goods

* Traded Mexico

* Shell jewellery(acid etching)

* Fortified around 1300

What is a Civilization?

1.Elaborated political and religious power.
2.Clear social ranking.
3.Planned public architecture.
4.A group of highly specialized craftsmen.
5.Control and active participation in inter-regional trade networks.
6.Complex intellectual achievements, such as a sophisticated, codified iconography for the permanent recording of certain concepts or events.

What is Cascajal?

* 3000 years ago

* Possibly the oldest writing

* However, no reliable provenience

* Block does not match any mesoamerican inscribed artifact

* Known systems do not use random glyph

What is San Lorenzo?

* Hallmarks of civilization were in place around 1200 BC

* First city in Mesoamerica by 900 BC

* Regal-Ritual city

* El Azuzul : Demonstration of power of the local ruler