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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who discovered Polonium?
Marie Curie
What tool do we use to measure radioactivity?
Geiger counter
What are the three types of radiation?
1. Alpha
2. Beta
3. Gamma
What material absorbs alpha radiation?
What material absorbs beta radiation?
aluminium foil
What material absorbs gamma radiation?
a few centimeters of lead
why are only some substances radioactive?
as most substances have stable nuclei and radioactive substances are trying to become stable by emitting radiation
what causes background radiation?
1. the environment
2. cosmic rays
3. devices such as x ray tubes
why can we not predict radioactive decay?
as it is a random event that we cant predict or influence
what charge dose the nucleus have?
What was the plum pudding model?
a model of an element that believed that the electrons were in a sea of positive charge.
what was wrong with the plum pudding model?
it could not explain why some alpha particles scattered
where is most of the mass found in the atom
the nucleus
what is an isotope?
an isotope is an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons changing the mass number
what change in the nucleus happens in alpha decay?
the nucleus loses 2 protons and 2 neutrons ( a helium atom)
what change in the nucleus happens in beta decay?
a neutron in the nucleus changes in to a proton
what happens when a particle is emitted in alpha decay?
2 protons and 2 neutrons are emitted as an alpha particle.
what happens when a particle is emitted in Beta decay?
an electron is created in the nucleus and is immediately emitted.
what is the order of penetrating power?
1. gamma
2. beta
3. alpha
what is alphas range in air?
what is Betas range in air?
1 m
what is gamma range in air?
why is beta radiation easily deflected
as it is a negatively charged particle (electron)
what direction dose beta deflect in comparison to alpha?
the opposite direction as it is positively charged
is gamma radiation affected by magnetic fields?
no as it is a wave not a particle and therefore has no charge.
why do alpha particles deflect less than beta
as alpha ways 8000 times more than beta canceling out the fact that alpha has twice the attraction.
what is ionisation ?
when a partlice gets an electron knocked of by a radioactive substance.
why is ionisation dangerous?
it can kill or damage cells that can cause problems such as cancer.
which is the most dangerous if it some how finds its way in to the body?
alpha as it has the greatest ionising power causing the greatest damage to the cells
how can we seperate radiation?
Using magnetic fields
what is a half life?
the average time it takes for the number of a nuceli of the isotope to half
what is radioactivity activity?
number of nucli that decay per second
how much dose the count and number of istopes change every half life
by half eg. 300 --> 150