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73 Cards in this Set

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Osmosis
The movement of water through diffusion
What type of membrane is required for osmosis?
A partially or semi-permeable membrane.
What is the main difference between diffusion and osmosis?
The semi-permeable membrane insures that only water particles can diffuse as other particles, like glucose are to big to pass.
Active Transport
Uses energy to move molecules over partial membranes against the concentration gradient.
Describe the three stages to active transport.
1) The protein grabs hold of a molecule.
2) Using energy it rotates to face the inside of the cell and releases the molecule on the other side of the membrane.
3) Again using energy it rotates back to the outside.
What do sports drinks contain?
Glucose and ions.
When are sports drinks actually useful?
After a very intense workout, when sweat causes a great loss of water and ions. Otherwise, regular water is enough.
If a sports drink's concentration matches the body fluids, what is the solution called?
Isotonic.
Why do large organisms have exchange surfaces?
To obtain all the food and oxygen need to keep the organism alive.
What exchange are the lungs used for?
Gaseous exchange.
Alveoli
The tiny gas sacs in the the lungs that are used for gaseous exchange.
Explain the process of gaseous exchange at the alveoli.
The red blood cells in the cappillaries diffuse the CO_2 into the the alveoli, through the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries, which is breathed out. At the same time oxygen is diffused from the aveoli, into the the capillaries into the red blood cells.
What is the process of breathing in?
1) Intercoastal muscles and diaphragm contract.
2) The ribcage moves out and the diaphragm flattens.
3) The volume of the thorax increases, decreasing pressure.
4) The air is drawn in to the lungs.
What is the process of breathing out?
1) Intercoastal muscles and diaphragm relax.
2) The ribcage moves in and the diaphragm become round.
3) The volume of the thorax decreases, which increase pressure.
4) The air is pushed out of the lungs.
What is breathing in and out called?
Ventilation
What is the intestine lined with?
Villi.
What is villi?
Villi are hair like structure in the inside of the small intestine. They have small walls and have many capillaries close to the walls making is easy to diffuse through, though active transport is sometimes used.
Stomata
Tiny holes at the bottom of the leaf, that allow gas in and out of the plant. They are controlled by guard cells.
When do the guard cells close?
When too much water is being lost.
Where are ions obtained from in plants?
The roots through soil.
What are the layers of a leaf cell, top down?
Waxy cuticle
Upper epidermis
Palisade layer
Sponge layer ( which has lots of air pockets)
Lower epidermis
Stomata/Guard cells
Transpiration
Evaporation through the stomata in a leaf.
What is a double circulation system.
A system that pumps the blood twice in a cycle, normally once to the lungs and then once to the body. It is used in large animals like humans.
Name the 4 chambers in the heart
Two atria (upper chambers), two ventricles (lower chambers)
Where does the pulmonary vein deliver blood to?
The left atrium
Which blood vessel delivers blood to the right atria?
The vena cava(s)
What blood vessel does the right ventricle deliver blood to?
The pulmonary atery
What blood vessel does the left ventricle deliver blood to?
The Aorta
Where is the trecuspid valve?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the pulmonary vein?
Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
Where is the mitral valve?
Between the light atrium and the left ventricle
Where is the Aortic valve
Between the left ventricle and the aorta
Where does the pulmonary artery carry blood to?
The lungs to be oxygenated
Where does the aorta carry blood to?
The body
Vessels sub-seeded with pulmonary are different how?
They carry the opposite type of blood e.g. oxygenated instead of de-oxygenated.
What are valves used for?
To ensure that the blood is going the right way
Arteries
Small lumen
Carry blood away from the heart
Have thick walls containing elastic tissue and muscle
Capillaries
One cell thick walls for diffusion
Carries blood through the organs
Veins
Large lumen
Carries blood to the heart
Have valves to prevent backflow
Lumen
The gap in the blood vessel.
What does blood contain?
White blood cells, red blood cells, platlets and plasma
What does the plasma transport?
Waste, soluble products of digestion and urea
Red blood cells
Are biconcave discs with no nucleus and contain haemoglobin for transport.
White blood cells
Cells that are part of the immune system
Platlets
Fragments of other cells that are used to help blood clot.
How do red blood cells transport oxygen around the body?
Oxygen + Haemoglobin <--> Oxyhaemoglobin
This reversible reaction allows rbc to collect oxygen and the unbind them where oxygen is needed.
Xylem
A plant tissue used to transport water and minerals up the plant.
Phloem
A plant tissue that carries sugar from the leaves down to the rest of the plant.
Homeostasis
Is keeping the internal conditions of the body at optimal levels.
What are some of the things controlled by homoeostasis?
Water & ions
CO_2
Urea
Temperature
Sugar levels
What does the kidney do?
It filters the blood, removing substances you do not need.
How does a healthy kidney make urine?
1) Filtering the blood
2) Reabsorbing all the sugar as well as the water and ions needed.
3) Releases urea and excess water & ions into the urine.
Where is the urine temporarily stored?
The bladder.
What process can artificially keep someone with kidney problems alive?
Dialysis
How does a dialysis machine work?
It works essentially like a kidney. Blood is pumped into it with blood thinners and clean blood is put through a bubble trap and back into the body. Urea and other waster leaves the dialysis machine separately.

The machine uses diffusion to ensure the right amount of stuff is put back into the body.
Where are kidney transplants typically attached?
The groin
What are immunosuppressant drugs used for?
To lower the immune systems ability to reject an organ donation.
What is the optimal temperature for a human?
Around 37 degrees Celsius.
What area of the brain controls the body temperature?
The hypothalamus or thermoregulatory centre.
What happens when the body is too hot?
Increase blood flow when we are hot causes us to go red, Sweating is also used to cool us down by using heat energy to evaporate the sweat. Hairs go down.
What happens when we get too cold?
We shiver making us move and use up energy, creating heat energy. Blood vessels lower and so less heat energy is radiated out. The hairs on our body stand erect.
What is insulin?
A hormone created in our pancreas to move glucose to cells or into the liver, where is turns to glucagen.
What are type 1 diabetics?
Type 1 diabetics are dibetics that do not produce insulin naturally.
What is a diabetic?
Someone who cannot control their blood sugar levels.
What is a type 2 diabetic?
Somebody who has diabetes by eating too much sugar and making insulin produced by their pancreas ineffective.
What is glucagon?
A hormone released by the pancreas to when sugar levels are too low. It tells the gulcagen in the the liver to turn back into glucose, and get the blood levels back to normal.
What for is glucagen in?
Strips with strips on them to make is easy to break away.
Herbicides
Weed posion
Pesticides
Pest posion
Why does sewage need to be treated?
So that the earth and water remain as unpolluted as possible.
Europhication
Too little oxygen in the lake meaning nothing can grow. This is normally do to microbes which use too much in respiration.
How do pesticides and herbicides affect the environment?
The poison is absorbed by smaller creature and going up the food chain the poison levels grow, meaning bigger predators are being poisoned.
Mycoprotein
Grown with fusarium. It is a protein-rich fungus, that can be mass grown and is suitable for vegetarians. It is grown aerobically on cheap sugar syrup.