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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what were the reasons for immigration from 1880-1920? effects?
-push factors:good factors that draw them to the US
- -"land of opportunity", economic, rags to riches
-pull factors: bad factors that push them away from their countrys
-- famine, religous persecution, crop failure, etc)
a rush of immigrants changed the cities
- americans feared the immigrants- skilled immigrants and low wages
the boss and the machine
-mostly democrats
-people who have have influence in the city and connections
-looking to maintain office through helping the immigrants
--provide jobs, homes, etc. through connections
-able to do good things for immigrants but also a lot of fraud, corruption, and bribes
-ex. Boss Tweedy
Thomas nast
- came at Boss Tweedy with his political cartoons
- portrayed him for his fraud and corruption
- influenced on all levels because even illiterate could understand
suburban sprawl. Why did this happen? What did the upper class do in order to ensure that the lower class stay in their economic (and geographic) position?
- people with wealth are able to move away from city ills (compare with slums and ghettos)
- sprawl is increased with TROLLY CAR AND AUTOMOBILE
- REALESTATE COVENANTS- packs to not sell to blacks which keeps them in their segregated districts (bad living)
old vs. new immigrants effects? what is white? nativism
- old=german and irish
- new= italian, jewish, greek, etc.
- racism toward new immigrants leads to definition of what is considered "white"
-- nativism- ANTI-IMMIGRANT-"a defense of the ethnic status quo"
- old immigrants (who are now more accepted and have more influence) descriminate new immigrants
Victorian Morality/gentel culture 1840's-1900.
- causes: immigration and city sprawl puts stresses on society- leads people to identify themselves as wealthy individuals
- define social standing according to behavior
- *belieft that their financial success is linked to their superier talent, intelligence, and self control
- ex. catharine beecherr "the American woman's home"- stresses correct behavior
- influenced the poor to fix themselves morally like the gentel culture
what is the cult of domesticity?causes? outcomes?
- idea of the woman's "seperate sphere"=the cult of domesticity
- led by victorian views that the woman should make the home the PERFECT REFUGE from all the ILLS of society
- at the home the woman should express her maternal gifts upon her family and influence them in cultural improvement and in VICTORIAN MORALITY
- department stores- allows women to INCREASE IMPROVEMENT-macy helped overcome relunctance to spend with techniques
Jane Addams/settlement housework 1880's
- MOSTINFLUENTIAL social reformer
- went into the city and tackled problem from within
- worked connections at MUNICIPAL LEVEL
- settlement houses= social activism- united many against the cause and helped the cause
- within the settlement house lives were improved with support and learning
what did victorian morality/social gospel (1870's)want to instill upon the poor?
- influenced the poor to fix themselves morally like the gentel culture
- social gospel-christianity commits people to fight social injustice- fix the poor RAUSCHENBUSCH- take morals and values you use for yourself (VICTORIAN MORALITY) and etend it to the urban environment to help social ills
middle class workers- outlets? reaction?
- sought physchological escapes from their hard lives
- saloons, boxing, baseball, vaudville, amusement parks= PHYSICAL ESCAPE), dance halls, ragtime
- some wealthy people look down upon these activities because believe that one should spend time improving economic standing if unstable
cultures in conflict -vs. victorian morality
- challenges the idea that ones moral and economic standing are linked.
womans role in society- sphere expands
breaks with victorian morality
- Willard- WCTU
- domestican of politics
- the new woman- bicycle
- women education in colleges
*breaks with victorian morality
-Willard- WCTU- society can benefit from the domestication of politics- women voting will improve public morality
- 1900- women go to college= INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUFFICENCY
- Gillman- author- women can make a positive contribution with economic independence
- bicycle- breaks with the idea of the woman. women can sweat
- veblen denounces the wealthy for conspicuous consumption
*for victorian morality
- Godkin writes
- wild- aesthetic movement
- denounces the rich for their "conspicuous consumption"
- says that they should spend money on helping the poor
blacks rise to prominence
- Booker T. Washington- through hard work a black can prove themself to white society
- WEB Dubois- immediate equality for blacks- shouldnt have to work hard
explain all the poor reforms that were attempted
- Riss-moral improvement
- Hartley- targeted the poor
- Brace- Children's aid society- prevents youth from joining the "dangerous classes"- got them out of bad conditions and taught them well
- social gospel- Rauschebusch- christian's duty to ensure victorian morality morals in the poor
- Jane Addams and Florence Kelly-settlement houses- went INTO the cities- made connections are municipal levels
explain the social reforms that were attempted
- Comstock- pushed to close down gambling, lottery, and obscene publication
- Parkhurst- organized vigilance league to clean up the city
Frances Willard*
- women can use their "special qualities" to help better society socially and politically
- domestication of politics
William Torrey Harris and Joseph Mayer Rice*
school reform
- require school attendence and teach good values within school that will help them in life
- discipline and knowledge will get them ready for the work force
Characteristics of urbanization*
- immigration
- factories
- economic opportunity
the creation of the boss and machine. to what extent did they help?
- cause: urban growth forced cities to raise taxes, issue bonds, and create new municipal departments.
- there was money to be made--> to a new professional politician (the boss)
- although they helped the poor (in order to ensure a spot in office) they granted tax cuts to favored contractors and recieved kick backs
- reformers sought to develop independent organizations to help the poor systematically
what does the social gospel and settlehouse movement demonstrate? negatives?
- reformers placing the blame not entirely on the victims of poverty
- took it upon THEMSELVES to fight social injustice

- however, they imposed their OWN standards and overlooked many immigrant organizations
conflict over public schooling. reason? reaction?
- use public schools in order to control the lower class in society
- opposed:
--working-class who needed children to work
--catholics (created porochial schools)
--wealthy sent children to private institutions
why did victorian morality come about? why did it go away after 1900?
- with the new apparent wealth gap the wealthy sought to:
1. make sense of this gap by providing justification for why they are wealthy: the fact that they have superior talent, intelligence, and moral behavior
2. sought to reform the ills of the people within society by preaching their genteel culture and influencing the poor to follow them

- the movement was only popular with some of the wealthy (and the wealthy was already a minority)
- people such as veblen denounced the genteel culture for not using their wealth positively and actually helping the poor
- movement (for example the social gospel) were much more effective in reforming society and therefore outshined moral reform through victorian morality
- people such as women, architects,writers, and artists were breaking with victorian morality through their actions
--women- bicycle, college attendance
-- Frank Lloyd Wright- houses rejected victorian refinement
--mark twain reveals the ills of society through writing with realism