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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Election of 1960
• John F Kennedy→ democrat (won)
o catholic
o his VP was Lyndon B Johnson
• Nixon→ Republican
o liberals accused him of mccarthyism
o Protestant
o more known and more experienced
• first televised presidential debates→ Nixon didn’t have a good appearance/presentation→ this influenced his popularity
New Frontier
• Kennedy’s presidential goals
• liberal govmt activisim
• but there was not a lot of significant social legislation during Kennedy
• economic growth through military and technological spending→ not social spending
• higher defense budgets
• increased nuclear stockpile
• congress finances the “space race” to counter SU’s advances (sputnik)
o Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
• cut corporate taxes→ provides more capital for businesses to invest with
• military spending, technological advances, heightened productivity
• Peace corps
Peace Corps
• created in 1961
• exemplified the New Frontier’s liberal anticommunism
• worked in third world countries to prevent communism
Bay of Pigs invasion
• 1961
• Kennedy approves a CIA plan for anti castro exiles to invade Cuba to counter Castro’s communism (Cuban revolution had taken place)
• Cuban exiles attack the Bay of Pigs and try to get people to rebel and overthrow castro
• it was a terrible disaster
Cuban missile crisis
• 1962
• the US finds out that the SU had built Missle bases in Cuba
o US freaks out b/c the US is REALLY close to Cuba
• Kennedy demands that the missiles be removed→ it’s a threat to world peace
• threatened to quarantine Cuba and impose a naval blockade if the SU didn’t comply
• Khrushchev (leader of SU)
• US freaks out→ scared that Cuba and the SU will shoot at them→ it could lead to a nuclear war
• SU attacks the US’ embargo
• eventually Khrushchev promised to remove the missiles if the US pledged to not invade Cuba and withdrawal missiles from Turkey
• Cuban missile crisis accelerates the arms race between US and SU for 25 years
• Cuban missile crisis confirms American belief that the US needs nuclear superiority in order to prevent war with Russia
Kennedy assassination (Nov. 22, 1963
• Lee Harvey Oswald shoots Kennedy and LBJ becomes president
• his death was very dramatic b/c it was televised and people saw it
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
• interracial protest group for black rights founded in 1942
• organized a “freedom ride” in the deep south
o a bunch of black people rode on the integrated bus (this was after brown vrs board)
o meant to show how violent white opposition to integration was
o succeeded by arousing white resentment→ meant to try to provoke whites
o freedom riders were beaten and their bus was burned
o JFK dispatches federal troops to end the violence
o JFK pressures the ICC to enforce Brown v Board
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
• group of black protesters who emphasized nonviolent civil disobedience to protest
• started a protest in Albany Georgia to desegregate public facilities
Birmingham protests
• MLK tries to provoke a confrontation that would expose the violent extremism of southern white racism
• Birmingham is one of the most rigidly segregated cities
• MLK initiates sit ins and marches in Birmingham
• MLK and other protesters get jailed
• MLK writes Letter from Birmingham Jail
Bull Connor
• tried to crush MLK’s Birmingham protests and the black movement
• unleashed men armed with electric cattle prods and water hoses to attack MLK’s protesters
• the ferocity of his attacks horrified the people watching it on television
Gov. George Wallace
• refused to allow two black students to enter the University of Alabama
• JFK forced him to follow a court desegregation order afterwards
March on Washington,
• 1963
• MLK leads ¼ a million people to march on washington (some included whites) to protest black rights
• largest political assembly to date
• MLK gives his I have a Dream speech
Civil Rights Act of 1964
• banned racial discrimination and segregation in public accommodations
• outlawed racial bias in federally funded programs
• granted the fed. govmt powers to fight school segregation
• forbade discrimination in employment
• created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce the act
Mississippi Freedom Summer Project (1964)
• CORE and SNCC activists gather in Missisippi (one of the most segregated places) to help register black voters
• KKK attacked the CORE and SCNCC activists
• registered a lot of blacks to join the Missisippi Freedom Democratic Party→ LBJ refused to seat the MFDP→ eventually he compromised and seated two of them → southern segregationists get really mad
Voting Rights Act (1965)
• invalidated the use of literacy tests
• boosts number of black voters
riots of summer 1965
• most destructive race riot ignites in LA
• for six days 50,000 blacks looted shops and destroyed white owned businesses
• happened in largest black district in LA
• blacks in Chicago rioted and looted and burned too
• Detroit suffered from race riots
• blacks turn to race riots to overthrow a racist and reactionary society→ tensions between whites and blacks
Black Power movement
• blacks campaign for immediate social change
• cry of frustration and fury
• very radical
• led by Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad
o branch of Islam (but not legitimate Islam) that thought an evil scientist named Jacob created white people
o the original people were dark skinned
o white people were created to oppress black people
o blacks were the original people
o black nationalism-→ said white people were not human beings
o integration is bad→ wanted a separate black society from white people
• Malcolm X→ very charismatic black leader of black power movement
o believed violent means could be used to achieve black rights (anti MLK)
o 1964→ takes a pilgrimage to Mecca
• realized real islam religion is good for blacks not the nation of islam
o forms organization of afro American unity
• embraces peace more
• all whites aren’t evil by nature
• blacks don’t have to completely isolate themselves
• goes against Nation of Islam
• trusts whites more
• he broke from the nation of islam after the pilgrammage
• Nation of islam is mad for Malcolm X’s betrayal
• Nation of Islam shoots Malcolm X
Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
• SNCC expels white people and becomes just black
• 1966→ Black Panther Party for Self Defense
o more militant
o descended from SNCC
o military organization→ carries weapons around for defense
o called for immediate equality
o black exemption from the draft
o govmt health care for blacks
o more militant and walked around with guns→ move violent
• so govmt was very wary of them
• govmt goes after the black panthers in 1968 and threw their leaders in jail
• govmt squashes the organization
King assassination
• MLK gets killed in 1968
Johnson's "war on poverty"
• LBJ passes TONS of social legislation during his presidency
• tries to eliminate poverty- declares a “war on poverty”
• lots of liberal legislation- like the New Deal
Economic Opportunity Act (1964)
• to promote greater opportunity
• established the Office of Economic Opportunity to fight poverty
• helped pass other anti poverty legislation→ Job Corps, VISTA, Head Start
Job Corps
• trained young people in marketable skills (job skills) to help them get a job
• Volunteers in Service to America
• domestic peace corps
Head Start
• provided free compensatory education for preschoolers from disadvantaged families
• kindergarten for the disadvantaged
the "Great Society"
• series of social legislation passed under LBJ to fight poverty racism and help environment
• Economic Opportunity Act
• Elementary and Secondary Education Act→ provided federal funding for schools
• Immigration and Naturalization Act→ forbade immigration quotas
• Air Quality Act→ set emission max rates for factories
• Water Quality Act→ set standards to control water pollution
• National Endowment for the Humanities and Arts→ provided govmt grants to support the arts
• Civil Rights Act-→ bans discrimination in public accommodations
• Voting Rights Act→ suspends literacy tests from voting
• Medicare→ medical insurance for the elderly
• Medicaid→ medical insurance for the poor
• National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act→ first federal safety standards for cars
24th Amendment
• forbade poll taxes
election of 1964
• Barry Goldwater→ Republican
o anti Great Society
o anti LBJ and liberalism
• LBJ→ Democrat
o he got a lot of southerners to switch to being republican b/c he was for racial equality and radical social legislation
• George Wallace→ segregationist
• LBJ wins a landslide victory
Justice Thurgood Marshall
• Supreme court’s first black justice appointed under LBJ
• again…this supports LBJ’s liberal agenda
the Warren Court
• liberal court that helped expand individual rights to everybody
• led by Chief Justice Earl Warren
• helped promote LBJ’s liberal agenda
Miranda v. Arizona (1965)
• ruled that police must warn all suspects that anything they say can be used against them in court and that they can choose to remain silent
American Indian Movement (AIM)
• 1968→ Indians get inspired by LBJ’s liberal social legislation→ create an American Indian movement
• goal was to protect the traditional ways of NAs, prevent police harassment, and establish Indian schools to teach Indian tradition and values
• staged a sustained protest on Alcatraz Island
• encouraged Indians to be proud of their heritage
Cesar Chavez and United Farm Workers (UFW)
• Hispanics advocate for their rights too
• Chavez uses religion and nonviolence to fight for social change
• organized strikes
• organized consumer boycotts
• civil rights and social justice for Hispanics
• set an example for the future Hispanic movements that would follow
National Organization for Women (NOW)
• feminist movement revives in the 1960’s
• women still received less pay and suffered inequality in the workplace
• Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, Aileen Hernandez and others form NOW
• civil rights group for women
• equal opportunity, filed lawsuits against gender discrimination
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
• Friedan’s book that deplored the narrow view that women should seek fulfillment solely as wives and mothers
• women can be more than just homemakers
Women's Liberation Movement
• women’s liberation groups start to form during the 1960’s
• generated publicity for women’s rights and equality in education and the workplace
• protested that Miss America was degrading to women
• established shelters for abused women, day care centers, rape crisis centers, abortion counseling services
• buildup under Eisenhower and Kennedy, entered the war under LBJ, ended under Nixon
• Vietcong, Ho Chi Minh and Diem
• Kennedy orders massive US army support to south vietnam and increased American forces
• Kennedy tried to stop Vietnam from going communist (domino theory)
National Liberation Front (the Vietcong)
• regime in charge of North Vietnam
• got support from China and SU (communist countries)
• fought a war of attrition against the US and South Vietnam
• they won the war
Tankin Gulf Incident
• US has warships near Vietnam
• its believed Nroth Vietnam shot down our navy but there’s no proof
• North Vietnam allegedly attacks our navy
• LBJ increases military activity against Vietnam
• US unofficially goes to war with N Vietnam (there was no congressional vote to go to war)-→ illegal war?
Operation Rolling Thunder
• first major US bombing mission in North Vietnam
• US used its air force a lot in Vietnam→ bombings especially
• used napalm to bomb the Vietnamese
• napalm stuck to its victims and burned them
• new technologies
Agent Orange
• hazardous chemical bomb that the US dropped on the Vietnamese
• caused cancer in US soldiers and Vietnamese
• really bad for the environment
• it was outlawed eventually
Ho Chi Minh Trail
• Vietcong used the Ho Chi Minh trail to escape the US
• the trail cut through Laos and other peaceful countries
• the US didn’t want to spread the war into peaceful countries so the Vietcong used the trail to hide and get away
"hawks" vs. "doves"
• Hawks→ pro Vietnamese war
• Doves→ anti war
Tet Offensive
• 1968
• Vietcong and N Vietnamese army launch a surprise attack on S Vietnam
• took over southern cities and attacked villages
• US fights them back and successfully drives the N Vietnamese out of South Vietnam
• Successful counter offense
• media dramatizes the killings
• b/c of this LBJ’s popularity decreases
Mylai Massacre
• US army massacres south Vietnamese civilians b/c they thought they were hiding the Vietcong
• extremely bad publicity for the US
• television watchers are horrified
Youth Movement
• baby boomer generation causes number of people going to college to rise during the 1960’s
• half the US population was under 30
• college students protest the Vietnam war the most
• hippies, rebellion, challenging society
• idolized mavericks like MLK and rebels
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
• formed by college students
• envisioned a nonviolent youth movement to transform the US into a “participatory democracy” where people will directly control the govmt decisions that affect them
o such a society will value love rather than materialism militarism and racism
• “Make love not war”
• organized sit ins and protests and marches
• supported draft resistance and civil disobedience
• “Hell no we won’t go”
Berkeley Free Speech Movement (1964)
• Mario Santo and other student activists try to recruit new volunteers and get funds for their student activist group
• the university banned such practices
• Santo starts the Berkeley Free Speech Movement
o coalition of student groups that insisted on the right to practice political activity on campus
• reflects hippiness of the 1960’s
• students protest and have sit ins to protest this
• free speech!
Kent State shootings (April, 1970)
• Nixon orders US troops to invade Cambodia (b/c he thinks the Vietcong and N Vietnamese were hiding there)
• student activist groups are outraged
• Kent State University→ students stage a massive violent protest against Cambodia
• Ohio Governor calls in the national guard to stop the kent state protests
o killed some students
Jackson State shootings (May, 1970)
• Mississippi state patrolmen fired into a women’s dormitory at Jackson State which killed 2 black students
• students respond with strikes that caused 400 colleges to close down
• peace, love, happiness
• protested Vietnam war
• liberation from social rules
• drugs and marijuana and LSD
• nature
• young people
• lots of sex
• 1960’s
• created a “counter culture”
Woodstock festival
• 400 young people gather at Woodstock Festival
• celebrated their vision of freedom and harmony
• for 3 days they had rock music performances and did drugs and had sex
• counterculture
Stonewall Riots
• gay liberation movement happens also
• gay patrons at the Stonewall Inn (gay bar) fought back a NYC police raid
• triggered a sense of gay pride and gay activism
• Gay liberation movement begins
Election of 1968
• Nixon→ Republican→ won
• Hubert Humphrey→ Democrat
• Wallace→ Independent
• south really breaks away from the democrats
• Bobby kennedy was going to run for the democrats but he got assassinated by an Islamic assassin who hated Kennedy’s pro Israeli views
Democratic National Convention, Chicago
• hippies and yuppies invade Chicago to protest the Vietnam war during the democratic national convention
• anarchists
• Youth International Party headed by counter culture (hippie) guru Abbie Hoffman
Richard Nixon
• involved in HUAC investigation for Alger Hiss
• Foreign policy goals
o stop SU expansionism and reduce conflicts between superpowers
o limit nuclear arms race
o planned to get the US out of Vietnam
• Got the US out of vietnam
• Détente with China and SU
• Six Day War and Arab Oil Embargo
• Chile crisis
• Watergate
Nixon Doctrine
• 1969
• redefined America’s role in the third world
• America will be a helpful partner to third world countries rather than a military protector
• this is a lot different than past president’s goals in the third world
• he’s trying to get us out of Vietnam and world conflict- we’re so tried of fighting
• nations facing communism attacks can turn to US for support but they must defend themselves
• American military supply sales jump after the doctrine
My Lai massacre
• American army unit under Lieutenant William Calley massacred several hundred south Vietnamese people
• raped girls and shot civilians
• example of war atrocities
• extremely bad publicity
• televisions politicized this event→ people are outraged → lots of pressure to end the war
Nixon’s attempts to get us out of Vietnam
• Vietnamization
o nixon’s plan to replace American troops with south Vietnamese troops
o train south Vietnamese to fight for themselves
o 1972→ US forces in Vietnam decrease dramatically
o but the policy was not effective
• Kissinger
o Nixon sends Kissinger to secretly negogiate with North Vietnam’s foreign minister Le Duc Tho
o Nixon ignores the fact that the south Vietnamese feared negotiating with the north Vietnamese
• Nixon increases US bombings in North Vietnam and on their supply routes in Cambodia and Laos to get the North Vietnamese to compromise
o but this wasn’t effective either
o it provoked a civil war between pro americans and communists in Vietnam
Khmer Rouge
• Cambodian communists
• North Vietnam supported the Khmer Rouge
• 1970→ N Vietnam increased its infiltration of troops in Cambodia to aid the Khmer Rouge and escalate the war with S Vietnam
• in response Nixon orders a US and S Vietnamese attack on Cambodia in 1970
o this ended Cambodia’s neutrality and spread the war throughout Indochina
• After the war ends in 1973 the Khmer Rouge took power in Cambodia and killed 40% of the population
• Khmer Rouge→ Cambodian communists are allied with the N Vietnamese
• in response Nixon orders a US and S Vietnamese attack on Cambodia in 1970
o this ended Cambodia’s neutrality and spread the war throughout Indochina
• 1970→ Nixon orders the S Vietnamese troops to invade Laos and destroy the communist bases there and restrict the flow of supplies from N Vietnam
• N Vietnamese kick the S Vietnamese attackers out of laos
Easter Offensive
• 1972
• b/c the N Vietnamese were successful in Laos they started the Easter Offensive
• largest N Vietnamese success since tet offensive
• N Vietnamese invade S Vietnam again and destroy it
• Nixon responsed by bombing N Vietnam’s harbors and bombing their cities
Kissinger’s negotiation
• 1972→ Kissinger announces that he had secretly negotiated a cease fire with Le Duc Tho
o required the withdrawl of all US troops
o return of all American prisoners of war
o allowed N Vietnamese troops to remain in south Vietnam
o the communists won and communism remains in Vietnam
• South Vietnam’s president Thieu refused to sign the cease fire b/c N Vietnamese troops would remain in S Vietnam
o Le Duc Tho presses Kissinger for additional concessions
o Nixon responds by bombing N Vietnam again→ bombed Hanoi and Haiphong→ most destructive bombing of the war
o Nixon reassures Thieu that the US will attack N Vietnam if they harm S Vietnam
• since Kissinger ended the war before Nixon’s election Nixon became popular and won reelection
Paris Accords
• 1973→ ends US involvement in Vietnam war
• but N and S Vietnam are still fighting in a stalemate war
• withdrawl of US troops
• return of American prisoners of war
• allowed N Vietnamese troops to remain in S Vietnam
• communists win
• ended hostilities between US and N Vietnam
• Détente→ the easing of relations and hostilities between countries
• Nixon tries to achieve détente with communist powers
• US creates new relationships with SU and China→ tries to leave the cold war behind
Détente with China
• Kissinger leads secret negotiations with Beijing
• 1971→ Nixon announces that he’s going to the People’s Republic of China to normalize US relations with China
• Nixon becomes the first president to visit China
• US and China start new diplomatic relations

Nixon recognizes the People's Republic of China as legitimate

- no longer "Red China"
Détente with the SU
• 1972→ Nixon goes to Moscow to sign agreements with the SU on trade, technological corporation, and nuclear weapon limitation
• Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
o 1972→ limited the SU and US to a limited number of nuclear weapons and forbade nuclear missiles for 5 years
o strategic equality rather than nuclear superiority
o reduced SU and US tensions and enhanced Nixon’s popularity in the next election
Six Day War
• 1967→ Israeli forces fought with Arabs in Egypt Jordan and Syria
• Israelis seize strategic territories from arabs
• Arabs continue to refuse to recognize Israel’s legitimacy
• example of how the world is still unstable despite détente
Palestinian Liberation Organization
• Arab militant organization that demanded Israel’s destruction
Arab oil embargo
• 1973→ Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel in response to Six Day War
• US shipped military supplies to Israel to help them fight the Arabs
• Arab states cut off oil shipments to the US (oil embargo) and its allies in response
• embargo lasted 5 months
• dramatized US dependence on foreign energy sources
• created fuel shortages and increased coal production and encouraged the US to build more nuclear power plants
• oil price rises
• oil imports from Alaska increase
• energy crisis
Shuttle Diplomacy
• Kissinger engages in Shuttle Diplomacy
• Kissinger flies to Mid Eastern countries for two years and negotiates a cease fire between Arab countries and Israel
• Israel must give back the territories gained in the Six Day War to the Arabs
• persuaded the Arabs to end the oil embargo
Nixon and countering SU influence
• Nixon supplies arms and assistance to the shah of Iran, white supremacist regime of South Africa, and Philippines
• based American aid on a nation’s willingness to oppose the SU
o so they gave aid to anti democratic places like Argentina Brazil Nigeria South Korea
Salvador Allende
• Chileans elect Allende (Marxist) for president in 1970
• Nixon secretly gives 10 million to the CIA to fund opponents of Allende
• US cuts off economic aid to Chile
• US blocked banks from granting loans to Chile
• 1973→ Chile overthrows Allende and killed him
• Nixon responds by sending economic aid and investment to Chile again
• Nixon’s active opposition to Allende reflected the extent to which the American policy remained committed to containing communism
Apollo 11 Eagle
• Nixon 1969
• first successful manned mission to the moon
• US launched it
• Neil Armstrong becomes the first man on the moon
• Buzz Aldrin also
• by 1973 five more American missions went to the moon
• 1975→ US and SU spacecraft meet in space and conducted joint research together
o space race ends with US and SU cooperation
Environmental Movement
• Nixon
• 1969-> TV publicizes the polluted Cuyahoga River near Cleveland which literally burst into flames
• Oil spills off the coast of CA
• Barry Commoner’s “Science and Survival” 1966 → book about the hazards of nuclear wastes and chemical pollution
• Paul Ehrlich’s “The Population Bomb” 1968→ dangers of overpopulation
• new laws on pesticides, endangered species
• first Earth Day celebrated in 1970
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
• enforced health and safety standards in the workpace
Environmental Protection Agency
• formed under Nixon
• consumer product safety
• established maximum levels for emissions of pollutants into the air
• created Occupational Safety and Health Administration
• overaw environmental regulations and restrictions
Family Assistance Plan
• 1969→ Nixon
• proposed a guaranteed minimum annual income for all Americans
• it didn’t pass b/c conservatives disliked the fact that it would cost a lot
• Johnson’s Great Society and Vietnam War creates a ton of debt
• Nixon has to deal with it
• inflation happens
• energy prices increase b/c of Arab Embargo
• Nixon cuts govmt spending and encourages Federal Reserve Board to raise interest rates
• first recession since Eisenhower happens
• sparked a wave of strikes
• Largest budged deficit since WWII since Nixon is deficit spending to counter the recession
Nixon fights militants
• govmt fights against militants like the Black Panthers
• IRS inspected their tax returns, Small Business Association denied them loans, National Security Agency wiretapped them
• CIA illegally investigated documents about thousands of American citizens
• Justice department prosecutes anti war activists and black radicals
• Nixon drew up an “enemies list”
• anti war movement
• Huston Plan
Huston Plan
• Nixon
• extensive wiretapping and infiltrating of radical organizations by White House operatives
• breaking into the homes of radical militants to gather evidence
• part of his anti war movement
• FBI resists this plan
Pentagon Papers
• Daniel Ellsberg→ anti war person
• Ellsbergo leaks govmt documents to the public and publishes them in the NY times
• documents talk about the US history of why they went to Vietnam→ made the US seem like they only went into Vietnam to seem tough against communism→ not for real reasons
• makes Nixon and the US look bad for anti war people
• Supreme court rules that the NY times is allowed to publish the pentagon papers
• Nixon responds by sending the plumbers after Ellsberg
The Plumbers
• Nixon creates his own group “The plumbers” to discredit people who are against his anti militant movement
o headed by former FBI agent G Gordon Liddy and CIA operative E Howard Hunt
o plumbers attack Daniel Ellsberg who leaked the Pentagon Papers
o Nixon directs the plumbers to break into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist to search for information to discredit Ellsberg
Swann versus Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education
• upheld that busing students to other schools in order to desegregate is constitutional and necessary
• Nixon tries to gain the support of white southerners for the next election→ Nixon condemns the ruling and asks congress to forbid bussing in order to desegregate
o tried to appease white parents who don’t want their kids to be integrated
Burger Court
• Nixon is still trying to gain voter support from the south
• Nixon appoints Warren Burger to be chief justice of the supreme corut
• Burger court is more moderate than the liberal Warren Court
• shifted more towards the right on issues like civil liberties and police power
Election of 1972
• Nixon→ popular b/c he got us out of Vietnam → Republican
• George McGovern→ Democrats
o income redistribution, decriminalization of marijuana, withdrawal from Vietnam, defense budget cuts
• Nixon wins especially because he targeted southerners and won their support
• Committee to Re Elect the President (CREEP)→ headed by John Mitchell→ Nixon established it to win the election
• Liddy and Hunt lead a republican under cover team to spy on the democrats
o wiretapped telephones at the Democratic National Committee headquarters and the Watergate apartment complex in Washington
• CREEP people break into Watergate hotel and get caught spying on the democrats
• Nixon tries to cover it up→ orders FBI and CIA to halt investigations of the Watergate break in
gave out hush money to people who knew the truth
• Nixon covers Watergate up in time to get elected
• Federal Judge Maximum John Sirica gets James McCord of CREEP to confess that white house aids had know about the Watergate break in
Special Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities
• established in 1973 in response to Watergate
• investigated Watergate
• eventually they start investigating the white house and nixon’s administration
• Nixon’s administration start to resign b/c they don’t want to be scapegoats
• SCPCA starts a televised investigation of Watergate breakin
o revealed the white house “enemies list”, presidential use of govmt agencies to harass opponents, illegal campaign donations
o exposed White house involvement in Watergate break in and cover up
• eventually another presidential aid confessed that it was Nixon who led Watergate
• Gerald Ford becomes Nixon’s VP after Agnew was charged with accepting bribes
• 1974→ nixon is forced to release the tapes of their conversations after the Watergate break in
House Judiciary Committee
• ordered Nixon to release the tapes of the conversations after the Watergate break in
• adopted 3 articles of impeachment for Nixon
o obstructing justice for impeding the Watergate investigation
o abuse of power for his use of the FBI and IRS to cover up Watergate
o contempt of congress for refusing to obey orders to release the tapes
• Nixon resigns before they can impeach him