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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Agenda-Setting Process (Rogers and Dearing 1996)
A very fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public, and / or policy-makers.
Three parties to agenda-setting theory
1 - Media
2 - Public
3 - Policy-makers
Agenda (Rogers and Dearing 1996)
A set of issues resulting from dynamic interplay.
Agenda setting theory is one-way or multi-directional?
Multi-directional - it is dynamic, can flow in either direction, or rearrange the parts.
Percentage of news stories over a 20 year period that have been substantially based on news releases or other pr efforts (McCombs 2004)
Close to 50%
Agenda Setting Theory
Theory that describes the interaction between media, publics, and policymakers to influence and control the agenda with the ultimate goal of creating policy change or creating action
Diffusion Theory
Describes how an idea or innovation gains acceptance by the public
Five Stages in Diffusion of Innovation
1 - Awareness
2 - Interest
3 - Evaluation
4 - Trial
5 - Adoption
Five types of people according to Diffusion Theory
1 - Innovators
2 - Early Adopters
3 - Early Majority
4 - Majority
5 - Nonadopters (Laggards)
Innovators (Diffusion Theory)
Well educated independent thinkers who have expendable income and contacts outside of the community but are not influential within the community. Will try untested products.
Early Adopters (Diffusion Theory)
Are influential within a community, well educated, expendable income, but will not try untried products or ideas. Will be among the first to try once tested.
Early Majority (Diffusion Theory)
Indicates the tipping point in the diffusion process.
Six elements of Shannon-Weaver Communication Model (Simple)
1 - Sender
2 - Encoder
3 - Channel(s)
4 - Decoder
5 - Receiver
(6 - Noise)
What element is needed in Shannon-Weaver Model to make it actual communication?
Feedback Loop
Fuzzy Language
Communication Barrier
Misalignment with culture and values
Communication Barrier
History of Distrust
Communication Barrier
Communication Barrier
Negative influencers
Communication Barrier
Lack of Credibility
Communication Barrier
Unreliable Media
Communication Barrier
Stress with use of a specific channel
Communication Barrier
Communication Barrier
What does Schramm add to the communication model?
Context - parties will interpret and respond based on their frame of reference
Broom's 7 Cs of COmmunication
1 - Clarity
2 - Credibility
3 - Content
4 - Context
5 - Continuity
6 - Capability
7 - Channels
People who are somehow mutually involved or interdependent with particular organizations
Four types of publics (Grunig)
1 - All-issue publics who are active on all issues
2 - Apathetic publics who are inattentive and inactive on all issues
3 - Single-issue publics who are active on a limited number of issues
4 - Hot-issue publics who respond and become active after being exposed to an issue
Four labels of publics (Grunig)
1 - Non-publics who are not involved
2 - Latent who are not aware of their connection
3 - Aware - aware of connection but have not acted
4 - Active - aware and have taken action
Four elements of public opinion
1 - Opinion, a view, judgement or appraisal formed int he mind about a particular matter
2 - Belief, a state or habit of mind in which trust or confidence is placed in some person or thing
3 - Attitude, a) a mental positon with regard to a fact or state; b) a feeling or emotion toward a fact or state.
4 - Value, something intrinsically valuable or desireable; something esteemed

Progressively harder to change 1-4
Of opinions, beliefs, attitudes, or values, which is the easiest to change
Eight elements of Lang & Lang's Public Opinion Process
1 - Existing mass opinion
2 - issue
3 - Creates a public
4 - Public Debate
5 - Time (all encompassing element)
6 - Public Opinion
7 - Social Action
8. Mass Sentiment (which becomes #1 in future)