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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A supersonic jet travels in the stratosphere. If such a plane were flying over a region experiencing thunderstorms, how would the supersonic jet be affected?
It would not be significantly affected. Remember, the earth's weather occurs mostly in the troposphere. Since the stratosphere is above the troposphere, the supersonic jet will not be affected much by the weather
Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Suppose you were able to watch a sealed vial of water travel up through the homosphere. It would freeze once it got 5 to 7 km high. Would the frozen water ever melt as the vial traveled farther up? If so where would this happen?
the water would melt near the stratopause. because of the change in the temperature gradient in the stratosphere, the vial will get warmer when it reaches the stratosphere. Near the top of the stratosphere, the temperature does creep above water's freezing point. At that point, the ice will melt.
energy that is transferred as a consequence of temperature differences

So heat is really energy that flows from one object to another
Changes from solid to liquid to gas (and changes the other way as well) are due to changes in the ________
_____ ________ of the molecules involved.
energy of motion
This is why things tend to expand when they are heated. The farther and faster a substance's molecules move, the more volume they will occupy.
what does thermometer really measure?
the average speed at which the molecules of a substance are moving
a measure of the energy of random motion in a substance's molecules
Why do you get hot when the temperature is high?
when the temperature is high, the molecules in the air colliding with your skin have much more energy than the molecules in your skin. As a result, energy is transferred from the air to you. This makes you hotter.
Two cold bricks are put in contact with one another. The first one has a temperature of -1.00 degrees Celsius, and the other has a temperature of -10.00 Celsius. Is there any heat in this two-block system?
There will be heat in this system, because energy will be transferred from the warmer brick to the colder brick. Despite the fact that both bricks are cold, one is warmer than the other. Thus, energy will flow from the warmer brick to the colder brick. Since heat is energy that is being transferred, heat is present!
A thermometer reads 25.00 degrees Celsius. Suppose you put that thermometer into a liquid, and the thermometer reading increases to 80.17 degrees Celsius. A bright observer notes that the temperature of the substance was actually a tad higher than 80.17 degrees Celsius the instant the thermometer was placed in it. Is the observer correct? Why or why not?
The observer is correct. When the thermometer was put into the substance, some energy got transferred from the substance to the thermometer. That's what caused the liquid in the thermometer to rise. Since energy went into the thermometer's liquid, it left the substance. This resulted in some small amount of cooling. In other words, since the thermometer took a little energy from the substance, it cooled the substance slightly. Thus, the substance was slightly warmer the instant the thermometer was placed in it, and then it cooled as a result of transferring energy to the thermometer.
Does the energy content of the troposphere increase or decrease with increasing altitude?
it decreases. as you increase altitude, the amount of greenhouse gases decreases, so there are fewer molecules absorbing energy. Therefore the temperature decreases
when you reach the stratosphere the temperature gradient changes because of what?
ozone layer which has an increase in the amount of the ozone gas

the ozone in the stratosphere is absorbing more energy from the sun but that increase stops and the temperature begins to decrease once you reach the stratopause.
How does a thermometer work?
Collisions occur between the molecules in the thermometer and the molecules of the substance it is in. If the molecules of the substance move faster than those of the thermometer, energy will be transferred from the molecules of the substance to those of the thermometer. The liquid in the thermometer heats up and expands. This causes the column of liquid to rise.
What happens when ice melts?
The water molecules in ice (a solid) are connected. When ice starts to melt the water molecules start vibrating and moving faster and faster until it melts and becomes a liquid. When it is in liquid form the water molecules move freely.
When do we feel the lack of atmospheric pressure?
if you were in a weightless situation
What units are used to measure barometric pressure?
pounds per square inch,
mm of mercury, atm (atmospheres)
Which atmospheric layer do we live in?
In which layer do the asteroids (meteors) burn up as they fall to earth?(heated up by friction)

Examples: Freon used in refrigeration and air conditioning, also used in surgical sterilizers and as firefighting agents
Those who are against the CFC ban point out that CFCs are four to eight times heavier than the nitrogen and oxygen in the air. As a result, they say, there is no way that CFCs can float up to the ozone layer. Why are they wrong?
Under normal conditions, CFCs cannot rise to the ozone layer. In the polar vortex, however, the steady rush of wind pushes them up to the ozone with ease.
Those who are for the CFC ban claim that skin cance rates have increased in Australia as a result of the "ozone hole". Although skin cance rates have increased in Australia (and around the world), why is it hard to believe that the increase is a result of the ozone hole?
The ozone "hole" is centered over Antarctica, and it exists for only a short time. Although the edges of the ozone hole sometimes reach to Australia, it is hard to understand how the very edges of the hole can have a measurable effect on the population, especially since it exists for only a few months out of the year, In addition, since skin cancer rates are increasing around the world, there are obviously other reasons for skin cancer increases, because the ozone "hole" can only affect people who live near Antarctica.
the two layers of the heterosphere
thermosphere and exosphere
region of the atmosphere between atlitudes of roughly 80 km and 460 km
the region of the atmosphere above and altitude of roughly 460 km

for all practical purposes these two layer can be considered "outer space"
many space shuttle missions occur in this layer
the region of the atmosphere between the altitudes of roughly 65 km and 330 km, where the gases are ionized.