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22 Cards in this Set

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State the 5 characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates.

1. covered with tough, dry scales
2. ectothermic
3. breathe with lungs throughout their lives
4. 3-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided
5. produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous
In this module, we studied reptiles, birds, and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ECTOTHERMIC or ENDOTHERMIC.
Reptiles are ECTOTHERMIC while birds and mammals are ENDOTHERMIC.
Study FIGURE 16.1 - identify the parts of the amniotic egg
A. amniotic fluid, B. embryo, C. amnion, D. allantois, E. chorion, F. yolk sac, G. yolk, H. albumen, I. shell
State the functions of the:
YOLK
ALLANTOIS
ALBUMEN
YOLK - serves as nourishment for the developing embryo
ALLANTOIS - allows the embryo to breathe
ALBUMEN - destroys pathogens that can enter the egg as well as supplying water and amino acids to the embryo - also as a shock absorber
Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it?
They must both molt because their body covering is not living.
What are the two most important functions of reptile scales?
Reptile scales prevent water loss and insulate the reptile's body.
These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles:

Rhynchocephalis, Squamata, Crocoldilia, Testudines

Place the following types of reptiles into their appropriate order: A. snakes, B. tuataras, C. lizards, D. tortoises, E. alligators, F. turtles
a. squamata
b. Rhynchocephalia
c. Squamata
d. Testudines
e. Crocodilia
f. Testudines
State the 6 characteristics that that set birds apart from other vertebrates.
1. endothermic
2. heart with four chambers
3. toothless bill
4. oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell
5. covered with feathers
6. skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones (not a characteristic for all birds)
Do all birds fly?
No. There are two orders of flightless birds.
A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which?
If the blood sample has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian. If it has only one or the other, it comes from a bird. Remember, a bird's heart has four chambers, so oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood do not mix!
Which has a harder shell: the egg of a reptile or the egg of a bird?
A bird's egg shell is harder because it contains lime.
You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea whether they came from a down feather or a contour feather. Looking at the barbs under the microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it?
DOWN FEATHERS have no hooked barbules.
What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation?
flight - CONTOUR
insulation - DOWN
What is a bird actually doing when it is preening?
When preening, a bird is actually OILING its feathers. The feathers need to be oiled regularly to keep the hooked barbules sliding freely along the smooth barbules and to keep the feathers essentially waterproof.
What is unique about a bird's method of molting?
A bird's feathers molt in pairs - one or a few at a time. This is different from arthropods and reptiles which tend to molt their whole body covering at once.
What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible?
1. proper structure of a wing
2. how to make strong, hollow tubes
3. reduce wing turbulence
Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone from an amphibian?
amphibian's bone is heavier
State the 5 characteristics that set mammals apart from other vertebrates.
1. hair covering the skin
2. reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviparous
3. nourish their young with milk secreted from specialized glands
4. four chambered heart
5. endothermic
What is the principal function of underhair?
INSULATION
What do we usually see when we look at a mammal, underhair, or guard hair?
We usually see the mammal's GUARD HAIR because that's what's on top.
Name a nonplacental mammal.
Any mammal from order monotremata or marsupialis - any one of the following -
duck-billed platypuses
spiny anteaters
kangaroos
wallabies
koalas
opossums
What is the main difference between offspring born after a long gestation period and offspring born after a short gestation period?
Offspring born after a LONG gestation period are more developed than those born after a SHORT gestation period.