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23 Cards in this Set

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Assign the following creatures to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia

A. frog, B. shark, C. lancelot, D. carp, E. sea squirt, F. lamprey eel
A. class Amphibia
B. class Chondrichthyes
C. subphylum Cephalochordata
D. class Osteichthyes
E. subphylum Urochordata
F. class Agnatha
What do sea squirts, lampreys, and amphibians have in common?
they all go through metamorphosis from larva to adult
What is the difference between cartilage and bone?
cartilage is more flexible and weaker than bone
You see a blood vessel from a creature. You have no idea what creature and you have no idea where it came from. You do notice, however, that the blood vessel wall is very thin. What kind of blood vessel is this?
This is, most likely, a CAPILLARY.
What do red blood cells do?
Red blood cells carry oxygen in the blood.
What protein gives red blood cells their color?
Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their color.
Frogs and toads are quite uncoordinated. They move their muscles in a very jerky manner. Which brain lobe is small in amphibians?
an amphibian has a small CEREBELLUM
An owl has very sensitive vision. Which brain lobes are larger in the owl compared to the "average" vertebrate?
Their OPTIC LOBES are enlarged
A creature reproduces when the female receives sperm from the male and then lays an egg which hatches. Is fertilization internal or external? What kind of development is this?
fertilization is INTERNAL

development is OVIPAROUS
What has the most inflexible skeleton: a ray, a lamprey, or a salmon?
SALMON's skeleton is less flexible

the stronger the skeleton the less flexible it is.
What do Atlantic salmon and lampreys have in common?
they are both ANADROMOUS
What is the shark's most sensitive means of finding prey?
The shark's most sensitive means of finding prey is its electric field sensor.
What function does the lateral line perform in sharks and bony fish?
The lateral line senses vibrations in the water. This alerts fish and sharks to movements in the water. Typically, sharks investigate the vibrations as possible food sources, while most bony fish swim away from them in fear.
What function do the dorsal fins perform in both sharks and bony fish? What function does the anterior dorsal fin play in bony fish?
In both sharks and bony fish, the dorsal fins are used for balance in the water. In bony fish, the anterior dorsal fin is also a defensive weapon, because it is hard and sharp.
What is the major difference between the tail of a ray and the tail of a skate?
Rays have thin, whiplike tails, while skates have thicker, fleshy tails.
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES IN 13.10
A. esophogus, B. brain, C. spinal cord, D. stomach, E. air bladder, F. kidney, G. gonad, H. anus, I. intestine, J. pyloric ceca, K. gall bladder, L. liver, M. heart, N. gills
Identify the basic functions of each organ listed in FIGURE 13.10 (PART 1)
GILLS - exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the water and the blood
HEART - pumps blood
LIVER - makes bile for the digestion of fats and does many other chemical tasks
GALL BLADDER - concentrates bile
PYLORIC CECA - secretes digestive enzymes and chemicals that break down food in stomach
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES in 13.11
A. anterior cardial vein
B. efferent brachial arteries
C. dorsal aorta
D. kidney
E. posterior cardial vein
F. atrium
G. ventricle
H. ventral aorta
I. afferent brachial arteries
J. gills
Of the STRUCTURES in FIGURE 13.11 - which are veins, which are arteries, which are neither?
ARTERIES - efferent brachial arteries, dorsal aorta, ventral aorta, afferent brachial arteries
VEINS - anterior cardial veins, posterior cardial vein
NEITHER - atrium, ventricle, gills, kidney
List all of the 6 common characteristics of amphibians.
1. endoskeleton is made mostly of bone
2. skin is smooth w/many capillaries and pigments. amphibians do not have scales.
3. usually have 2 pairs of limbs w/webbed feet
4. have as many as 4 organs of respiration
5. 3 chambered heart
6. oviparous w/external fertilization
What is the different between a toad and a frog?
frogs have smooth, wet skin and live near water. toads have dry, warty skin and need not live near water.
For most amphibians, what is the major respiratory organ?
The major respiratory organ for most amphibians is the SKIN.
PART 2
INTESTINE - digest food
GONAD - reproductive
ANUS - expelling of undigested food
BRAIN - controls nervous system
ESOPHAGUS - sends food to stomach
STOMACH - stores and breaks down food
SPINAL CORD - sends message from brain to other parts of the body and vice-versa
KIDNEY - cleans blood of waste products
AIR BLADDER - allows fish to change depths and float in water