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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
muscle types:
muscles are classified by:
what are the other names for muscle cells?
myocytes or fibers
what does muscle contraction depend on?
two kinds of myofilaments:
what are actin and myosin
skeletal muscle chracteristics:
multi-nucleated, long thin sylinder shaped, striated, voluntary, attached to muscles, rapid contractions
cardiac muscle chracteristics:
interclated disks(reinforce fibers), in heart, striated, involuntary, bifrucated, rythmic contractions, uninucleated
smooth muscle characteristics:
non-striated, in walls of hollow visceral organs and blood vessles and skin, involuntary, slow and sustained contractions, uninucleated, spindle shaped
funtions of the muscular system:
movement, posture maintenance and body support, joint stability, heat generation, support soft tissue, guard entrances and exits
functional characteristics of muscle:
excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
separates individual skeletal muscles from adjacent muscles and holds them in position by layers of dense CT
a cordlike sturcture that is formed from dense CT projecting beyond the end of its muscle connecting it to bone; an extention of the fibers (linked sausages)
(tendonitis) tendon becomes inflamed and swollen after an injury of repeated use
connective sheath of a tendon may become inflammed and swollen
a sheet like structure formed from dense CT associated with muscle may attach to bone or the coverings of adjacent muscle
a section (portion) of a muscle consisting of a bundle of muscle fibers and surrounded by a perimysium
a layer of CT that closely surrounds a SKELETAL muscle (covers whole)
CT that extends inward from the epimysium and separates muscles into FASCICLES and possesses collagen and elastic fibers, blood vessels, and nerves
the thin layer of CT that surrounds each of the individual muscle cells and interconnects adajacent muscle fibers.
the endomysium contains:
capillary networks, satellite cells, nerve fibers
deep fascia-
portion of the fascia that surrounds or penetrates muscles
subcutaneous fascia-
continuous from deep fascia; is fascia just beneath the skin forming the subcutan. layer
subserous fascia-
CT layer of the serous membranes covering organs in various body cavities and lining those cavities
another term for single muscle cell?
the plasma cell membrane of a muscle cell, surrounds cytoplasm
the cytoplasm of a muscle cell
look at sarcoplasmic reticulum
look at transvers tubules
formed by a transvers tubule surrounded by tow cisternae of t tubules near the region where actin and myosin filaments overlap
threadlike structures located in the sarcoplasm and anchored to the inner surface of the sarcolemma, play a fundamental role in the muscle contraction mechanism
each cylindrical _ consists primarily of two types of protein _ called?
myofibril, myofilaments;

thick myosin and thin actin
actin contains two proteins called:
troponin and tropomyosin
a segement of a myofibril or a contractile unit located from z-line to z-line, a structural and functional unit
a of myofilaments:
each myosin molecule consists of 2 twisted protein strands w globular parts called CROSS BRIDGES (HEADS); project outward toward actin
a of actin:
thin filaments consists of double strands of actin twisted into a helix (2 pearl strands); actin has a binding site to which the cross-bridges or a myosin can attach
what are the 2 proteins associated w actin filaments:
tropomyosin troponin
troponin molecules have 3 protein subunits:
one binds to actin, one binds to tropomyosin, one binds to calcium ions
neuromuscular junction-
(myoneural juntion) the site where the axon and muscle fiber meet
motor end plate-
a specialized portion of the muscle cell membrane that is extensively folded with abundant nuclei and mitochondria (usually 1 per muscle fiber); part of sarcolemma
motor unit-
a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
motor neuron-
carries impulse from cns to effector
synaptic cleft-
separates the membranes of the neuron and the membrane of the muscle fiber
synaptic visicles-
in the cytoplasm at the distal ends of nerve fibers store chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTERS
sliding filament theory-
hugh huxley; when sarcomeres shorten, the thick and thin filaments slide past one another. the actin filaments move toward the center of the sarcomere from both ends
decomposes acetylcholine remaining in the synapse; in the synapse and on the membranes of the motor end plate
creatine phosphate-
an energy source available to generate ATP from ADP
what muscle cells depend on to synthesize ATP after creatine phosphate is used
carries oxygen inside fiber; temporarily stores oxygen when contracted, a pigment that produces RED color in muscle tissue, , reduces the muscles need for a continuous blood supply during contraction, this is importan becasue....
contraction does what?
decreases blood flow
lactin acid threshold-
a rapid increase in blood vessels, is made when oxygen supply is to low to sustain aerobic reactions
oxygen debt-
amount of oxygen needed for reactions to occur to get back to original concentrations
the condition in which a muscle fiber cannot contract
a painful condition in which a muscle undergoes a sustained, involuntary contraction
by product of cellular respiration, all cells generate heat
threshold stimulus-
the minimal stimulus needed to start a muscle contraction
the response of a single muscle fiber to the ACh released by a single action potential and invloves a period of contraction followed by a period of relaxation
a recording of the events of a muscle twitch
three periods of a muscle fiber
latent-between stimulation and beginning of the contraction; contraction- a muscle fiber is generating force or contracting; relaxation- the period in which a muscle fiber is decreasing tension
refractory period-
the period in which a muscle fiber is unresponsive to stimulation
muscle fibers have an - - - response.
all or none
the combination of the force of individual twitches
tetanic contractions-
(tetanus) contractions that lace relaxation
an increase in the number of activated motor units.
muscle tone-
(tonus) the amount of sustained contractions in a muscle; this is important for maintaining posture
types of contractions:
isotonic; concentric; eccentric, isometric
isotonic contraction-
a tyupe of contraction that produces movement of a body part
concentric contraction-
an ISOTONIC contraction in which shortening of the muscle occurs
eccentric contraction-
an ISOTONIC contraction in which lengthening of the muscle occurs
isometric contraction-
a contraction in which muscle tension increases but no movements ob body parts are produced
a pattern of spontaneous repeated contraction
a wavelike motion produced by smooth muscle contration
a group of muscle fibers that contract as a unit
the immovable end of the muscle
the moveable end of the muscle
prime mover-
(agonist) the muscle primarily responsible for producing an action
a muscle that assistss the prime mover
a muscle that resists the action of a prime mover
decreasing of angle
increasing of angle
muscle fibers and ass. CT are torn due to overstrectching
series of involuntary contractions of various voluntary muscles
degenerative disease in which CT w many fibers replaces skeletal muscle tissue
inflammation of CT w many fibers; especially in the muscle fascia; also called muscular rheumatism
muscular dytrophy-
progressive muscular weakness and atrophy caused by deficient dystrophin protein
pain resulting from any muscualr disease or disorder
study of muscles
tumor composed of muscle tissue
any muscular disease
loss of ability to move a body part
the decrease in size and strength of a muscle
the enlargement of muscle that a forcefully exercised
a ringlike band of muscle
myasthenia gravis-
chronic disease that makes muscles weak and fatigued. results from immune system;s attack on neuromuscular junctions
shin splints-
soreness on the front of the leg due to straining of anterior lege muscles often resulting from walking up and down hills