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38 Cards in this Set

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commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps and the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations


The deliberate effort modify a portion of earths surface through the cultivation of crops in the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain


farming or cultivated fish and shellfish under controlled conditions, in contrast to the harvesting of wild fish and shellfish

boserup thesis

The view the population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture

commercial agriculture

term used to describe a large-scale farming and ranching operations that employee vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory type labor forces, and the latest technology

crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil


The farming and sale/distribution of milk and milk products


The successful transformation of place or animal species from a wild state to condition of dependency on human management, usually with distinctive physical change from wild forebears

double cropping

harvesting twice a year from the same field

excessive subsistence agriculture

A form of every culture characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area. Two dominant systems are nomadic herding and shifting cultivation


when previously cultivated that has been left unseeded for a season or more


A plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market

first agricultural revolution

dating back 10,000 years, the first agricultural revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication, also known as the neolithic revolution

genetically modified organisms

crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods, often through combination of DNA from a similar plant or animal species

food desert

an area characterized by lack of affordable, fresh, and nutritious food

Green revolution

The recently successful development of higher yield, fast growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs


The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers

intensive subsistence agriculture

A form of substance agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible-yield from a parcel of land. Consumption rice is an important example

livestock ranching

The raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool

luxury crops

non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, & tobacco

market gardening

The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually

mediterranean agriculture

specialize farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails


The areas surround a city from which milk is supplied


dependence on a single agricultural commodity

Pastoral nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals that are solely dependent on natural forage


A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

rural settlement

sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities

Second agricultural revolution

A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid 1900s that started in Western Europe, beginning with pre-industrial innovations to replace human labor with machines into supplement natural fertilizers and pesticides with chemical ones

shifting cultivation

cultivation of crops and tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandon after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also known as slash and burn agriculture


A government payment that supports a business or market

subsistence agriculture

any of several agricultural economies in which crops are grown or livestock or raised nearly exclusively for local and family consumption

sustainable agriculture

farming methods that preserve long term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides


The path of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

third agricultural revolution

currently in progress, the third agricultural revolution has as its principal orientation the development of genetically modified organisms

tragedy of the commons

The observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of resources available to all it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their collective pressures may diminish total-yield or destroy the resource altogether.


The seasonal migration of pastoralists and their livestock between highland & lowland pastures

truck farming

The intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; also known as horticulture farming or market gardening

Von thunen model

A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. The process of spatial competition the locates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market