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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Method of extracting gold from rock
Cyanide heap leaching
Makes up 71% of the earth's crust
Oceanic crust
Less dense, thicker, and younger crust
Continental crust

The zone of hot, partly melted rock that flows and can be deformed

The combination of crust and the outer part of the mantle

The location on the earth's surface above where an earthquake begins


The location in the earth's crust where an earthquake begins


The overburden of soil and rock after the ore is removed is called

Is cheaper and less hazardous type of mining, but leaves the land scarred and unsuitable for other uses
Surface Mining
Is a more dangerous and more expensive type of mining, but results in less environmental damage.
Subsurface mining

Describes the time it takes to use up approximately 80% of the mineral reserves

Depletion time

High costs, equitable division of profits between stakeholders, ownership of the sea floor, and safety of aquatic life
Disadvantages of mining the ocean floor

Recycling and reusing, raising prices, and banning subsidies

Increases depletion time

Increased consumption, lowering prices, and subsidies

Decreasing depletion time
Where an oceanic plate is pushed beneath a continental plate.
Subduction Zone
Where new crust is created
Divergent boundary

Oceanic plates diverge (move apart) and magna flows up through cracks creating a line of underwater mountains.

Oceanic ridge

Tectonic plates slide and grind past each other

Transform fault
Where old crust is created/destroyed
Convergent boundary

Machinery digs large hole to remove metals

Open-pit mining

Uses earthmover and power shovel on flat terrain

Strip mining

Magma that manages to reach the surface of the earth


Explosives remove mountain top to expose seams of ore

Mountain-top removal

An element or inorganic compound that occurs naturally in the earth's crust as a solid with a regular internal crystalline structure.


Identified resources from which the mineral can be extracted profitably at current prices are called


The environmental impact of mining depends on the percentage of metal content, or...


Piles of wastes removed from mining


Using microorganisms that can breakdown rock material and extract minerals