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59 Cards in this Set

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anything that occupies space and has mass

matter

3 states of matter

solid, liquid, gaseous

the capacity to do work or put matter into motion

energy

2 states of energy

kinetic


potential

energy in action

kinetic energy

inactive energy that has the capability to do work but is not presently doing so

potential energy

4 forms of energy

chemical


electrical


mechanical


radiant

the type of energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules

chemical

energy that results from the movement of charged particles called ions

electrical

energy associated with the motion and position of an object

mechanical

energy that travels in waves, produced from electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic/radiant

-unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes


-found on the periodic table

element

the smallest component of an element consisting of a neutrons, protons, and electrons

atom

which 4 elements make up about 96% of the human body

carbon


oxygen


hydroden


nitrogen

positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom

proton

number on the periodic table that identifies the number of protons present in an atom

atomic number

neutral particle located in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

where is the atomic number located on the periodic table

bottom left

the only element with no neutrons

hydrogen

negatively charged particle located in the shell of an atom

electron

maximum number of electron shells per atom

7

number of electrons present in innermost shell

2

maximum number of electrons present in outermost shell

8

when does an electron become chemically inert

when the outermost electron shell achieves its maximum capacity

net charge of an atom

neutral

what is the ratio of electrons to proton present in an atom

1:1

the number of protons plus neutrons present in an atom

mass number

where is the mass number located on the periodic table

top left

isotopes are variants of elements that occur when...

atoms have a constant number of protons but a different number of neutrons

-the average of the relative mass numbers of a ll the isotopes of an element found in nature


-usually approximately equal to the mass number

atomic weight

types of isotopes that decay spontaneously releasing radioactivity

radioisotopes

how to identify on theperiodic table how many electrons are in the outermost shell

Roman Numeral Column

how to identify on the periodic table how many electron shells the element has

numbered rows

atoms that are held together by chemical bonds

molecules

type of chemical bond formed when atoms gain or lose electrons to become chemically innert

ionic

chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms

covalent

type of chemical reaction that occurs when two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product

synthesis reaction

a chemical reaction where a compound breaks apart into two or more parts
Dissociation Reaction

type of chemical reaction in which bonds are rearranged

exchange reaction

4 factors affecting rate of chemical reactions

temperature


size


concentration


catalysts

atoms with extra electrons or missing electrons, capable of conducting electric current in solution

ions

a measure of hydrogen concentration (acidity) of a solution

pH

as hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value ___ and vice versa

decreases

Any compound that either lacks carbon atoms or is in which the carbon atoms are ionically bound to other atoms

inorganic compounds

these substances are capable of resisting abrupt changes in pH either by releasing or binding H+

buffers

compounds that contain carbon

organic compounds

3 compounds that contain carbon but are not organic compounds

CO2


CO


carbides

organic compound that contains CHO in a 1:2:1 ratio

carbohydrates

simple sugars that are the basic energy source for all cells along with ribose and deoxyribose found in RNA and DNA

monosaccharides

4 types of monosaccharides

glucose


hexose


galactose


fructose

type of CHO formed from 2 monosaccharides by an enzyme reaction

disaccharides

2 examples of disaccharides

sucrose


maltose

long chains of simple sugars linked together to make complex CHO used for energy storage and broken down to release glucose when BG levels fall, primarily stored in liver and muscle

polysaccharides

glycogen is what type of CHO

polysaccharide

3 types of lipids

triglycerides


phospholipids


cholesterol

3 types of triglycerides

saturated


monounsaturated


polyunsaturated

type of bond and examples of saturated fats

single covalent between carbon


butter

type of bond and examples of monounsaturated fats
double covalent

olive oil, peanut oil


type of bond and examples of polyunsaturated fats

more than one double covalent bond


corn oil, soybean oil