• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AP World Midterm Key Terms Set
Ignore if on shuffle mode
Neotholic Revolution
A misleading term that refers to the ancient Agricultural revolution. It is the change from food gathering to food production that occurred between 8000 and 2000 BCE.
An ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies but sometimes used by anthropologist to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits
The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state, Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt.
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians’ belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order.
Amorite ruler of Babylon (1792 – 1750 BCE). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
The king of Sumerian cities. This position may have developed by men chosen to lead the armies that extended their authority, or increase in the frequency and scale of warfare. Evolved around he twenty fifth century.
A small independent state consisted of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium BCE. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation (in modern Pakistan), and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran
Bronze Vessel
(1050-771BCE)Zhou Dynasty, delicate and diverse patterns were engraved on cups, bowls, and other minerals were soon used in the Bronze. In 206 BCE, bronze was used as mirrors instead.
Oracle Bones
(2000-1027BCE)Used in the Shang empire, these bones came from an animals shell. The shell was cracked, and the cracks were interpreted as messages from the spirit world.
Stone Heads
(1500-400BCE)Heads representing famous ballplayers or rulers in the Olmec.
Jaguar Deity
(1500-200BCE)Belived in the Olmec and Chavin civilizations to be a sort of god. Often times combined with animals or humans, like a jaguar toad.
Mandate of heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects
Dynastic Cycle
A new ruler gains the Mandate of Heaven, and the population increases as does corruption. A natural disaster wipes out farm land, and causes the people to rebel. The ruler loses the mandate of heaven and the population decreases because of the violence. China goes through a warring states period, and one state emerges and gains the Mandate of heaven
Aryan Migration
(1700-1200BCE) Tribes that migrated from Bkah to the land of seven rivers. Carried with them their culture and spread it.
Phonecian Migration
(3000 BCE) The Phoenicians migrated to Lebanon. They took with them the alphabet and writing system and spread it as they arrived.
Israelite Migration/Diaspora
A Greek word meaning “dispersal,” used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughout the world.
Assyrian Migration
(1810-1070BCE) Semitic people living in North Mesopotamia. Conquered Babylon, Syrian, and Armemoa. Became the Neo-Assyrian empire in 1070.
Ancient Greece
(2900-1100BCE) The civilization in Greece. It had high cultural achievement around 1100BCE, but it had widespread destruction soon after. Was a big part of cultural spread.
The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in Archaic and Classical periods. Of the hundreds of city-states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by Greeks, some were oligarchic, other democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and the Assembly.
(425-429 BCE)Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague in the war
(2500 BCE to now) A city in Europe, was the leading city o Ancient Greece around1000BCE. In the 5th Century had cultural achievements that laid down the foundation for Western Civilization. Recovered under the Byzantine empire.
(650–362BCE) The dominant military power in Greece. Enemy of Athens in the Peloponnesian war. Lost power in 362 BCE. Left the admiration of Sparta, which is seen in Western culture.
Persian War
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, including Ionian Revolt(499-494 BCE), defeat of Xerxes’ massive invasion of Greece(480-479BCE). The First major setback for Persian arms launched the Greek into their period of greatest cultural productivity.
(550-330BCE) Largest empire in the ancient world. Conquered Egypt, and middle east. Very successful, and most widespread when it was under Darius the Great.
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the King. Was responsible for the protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy
(356-323BCE) King of Macedonia in Northern Greece. Conquered Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek style cities, spread Greek culture across the Middle East
(323-30BCE)The concept of being powerfully influenced by Greek culture. Applied to the lands in northeastern Africa and western Asia during the Hellenistic Age.
Shi Huangdi
(221-210BCE) Founder of the Qin dynasty. Remembered for ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks.
Wu Di
(156-87BCE) The seventh emperor of the Han dynasty. Expanded his empire and created centralized Confucian state.
(63BCE-14CE) Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the falling rule of the Roman Senate. Laid the groundwork for centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
Julius Ceaser
(100-44BCE) The Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman empire.
Qin Empire
(221-206BCE) People from the Wei Valley that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire. Qin framework was taken over by the Han. Ruler was Shi Huangdi
Roman Empire
(507-31BCE) The period which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. Most of the population composed of farmers.
(10th century BCE to 5th century CE)The highest-ranking family status in an Ancient Roman household. Always a male.
Patron/Client Relationship
The fundamental social relationship in Rome in which the patron provided legal and economic protection and assistance to the clients. The clients then support the political careers and economic interests of their patron. Clients are lower status than Patrons.
(270-232BCE)Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire. Converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars.
Chandra Gupta
(375-413/15CE) Most powerful empower of the Gupta empire. Ruled when the Gupta achieved its zenith, called the golden age of India.
A state that acquires prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract and bind subjects to the center. ex. Gupta Empire
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran
Indian Ocean Trade
A network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia.
Sub-Saharan Trade
The trade in the part lying south of the Sahara (look up)
Saharan Trade
(1200-1500CE) Trade that was instrumental to the Saharan empires success. Linked Ghana, Mali, Songhay
Code of conduct for government officials and a philosophy of Confucius’ doctrine of duty and public service
(604-531BCE)Chinese school of thought. An alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Believe that the world is always changing and has no morality or meaning. Do not stray from Dao, or the “Path” of nature.
(570-632CE) Arab prophet, founder of the religion of Islam
5 pillars
The five pillars of Islam. They are the profession of faith, ritual prayer, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan, and pilgrimage to Mecca
(17th Century CE) A political system that revolves around lords, vassals, and fiefs. Also can refer to manorialism.
The body of Islamic religious law. Based on the Qur’an. Widely used in Religious law.
Sunni vs. Shiite
Muslims that believe that the community should select its own leadership, and Muslims that believe that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son of Low Ali.
A large self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord’s residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
(790-1066CE) Norse explorers, pirates, and merchants who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe. Used their longships to travel far and fast.
(1096-1291CE) Invasions of the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Brought an end to western Europe’s intellectual and cultural isolation.
(482-565CE) The Justinian dynasty (518-602CE) was a family who ruled over the Byzantine empire. Justinian I was the second member of this family, and in his late rule, the outbreak of the bubonic plague occurred.
The largest city of Ukraine. It is an important industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Eastern Europe. Lost most of its influence after the Mongol invasion in 1240.
Moveable type
(271CE)Type in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. Replaced woodblock printing, and allowed arrangement of individual letters and characters on a page.
Equal field system
(222- 800CE) A historical system of land ownership and distribution in China. All land was owned by the government, who would assign it to individual families. Each individual had a certain amount of land, and after death the land would revert to the state to be reassigned. System was put in place to make sure no land is neglected
Civil service exam
An exam put in place to achieve and effective rational public administration. Very vigorous, lots of studying required.
Middle Kingdom
(222-920CE) Also refers to China. Consists of the six kingdoms and the Tang.
Grand Canal
1100 mile waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers, began in the late 16th Century. Started in the Han period, ended in the Sui period.
(772-1200CE)A form of Confucianism developed during the Song dynasty. Forms the basis of Confucian orthodoxy in the Qing Dynasty. A philosophy that tried to merge basic elements of Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist thought.
Silla dynasty
(57-935CE) One of the kingdoms on the Korean peninsula. Had a centralized monarchy.
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
A gift given to a deity. The object devoted to the deity can be a cup of wine, a live animal, or a human.
Genghis Khan
(1167-1227) Ruled the Mongols from 1206, was the founder of the Mongol empire.
A political entity ruled by a Khan. The ll-Khan and the Golden horde were part of the four separate Khanates of the Mongol empire.
Alexander Nevskli
(1220-1260) Employed shrewd policies towards the Golden Horde. Was a Saint and a prince of Russia.
Moscow tsar
The concept that people that the there is only one emperor in Christian world and the emperor does not reside in Moscow, so it would be wrong to call him a tsar.
Paper Money
(600-present) A paper note that represents money. Becomes money itself, and spreads after Marco Polo’s visit to china.
Kublali Khan
(1215-1294) Last of the Mongols Great Khans, began reign in 1260. Founder of the Yuan Empire.
Tax farming
A government’s use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount.
The period when Zhu Di (1260-1424) reigned. He was the third emperor of the Ming Empire, and sponsored the Building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of Chinas borders to trade and travel.
Zheng He
(1371-1433) An Imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean.
Swahili City States
(6th century) States along the Swahili coast that spoke Bantu and were Islamic. They served as a middle man between east, central and south Africa.
Starting at the middle ages, there was Bantu civilization in this area. It traded gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass. It was a big trade port for merchants.
Mansa Musa
(1312-1337) The tenth emperor of the Mali Empire. Promoted trade and gave Mali a wealthy reputation.
Marco Polo
(1254-1324) Trader and explorer form Italy. He visited Asia and the Mongols and gave Europe many goods, foods, cultures, and ideas such as paper money.
Ibn Batutta
(1304-1369) Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. Wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Bantu Migration
(2000BCE-500CE) The migration of the Bantu speaking people from East Africa to South Africa. Spread their East African culture.
(1450-1750) The culture of the Africans from any region of Africa. Africanity arrived in Europe and America.
(Mid-fourteenth century)A interest in grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy/ethics – subjects that are known in humanity. Idea of the Italian Renaissance.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. Spread by rats on merchant boats.
(722-1492) A period in the Middle ages when several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims.
Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. Resulted in the protesters creating new Christian branches.
(14th century) Swahili settlement that was a port city for foreign powers. Portuguese had a trading post in Malandi. Malandi had a church
Vasco de Gama
(1460-1524) a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery. Commander of the first ships to set sail from Europe to India.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519 to 1521 for Spain
Spanish Explorer who led the conquest of the Inca empire of Peru in 1531 to 1533
(1400-1914) West central African kingdom that reached from the Atlantic ocean at its greatest extent. Its influenced its neighboring kingdoms, and people arrived here due to the Bantu migration.
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) A German monk, theologian, and church performer. His ideas influenced the Protestant Revolution. He questioned the Church and gave his own alternatives to their ways. Was a model for the rest of the Protestant reformers.
John Calvin
(1509-1564) A French theologian during the Protestant Reformation. He expanded a system of reformed Christian theology and called it Calvinism.
The response to the Protestant reformation by the Catholic Church. Composed of Doctrine, religious orders, and movements.
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, first started with the motion of the planet and other physics. By the Seventeenth century, the modern science groundwork had been laid out.
A movement in the eighteenth century that created the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of pants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world in the late eighteenth century
An Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help neighbors and work on the behalf of the ruler and religious organizations
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. Provided the grant holder with cheap labor and payments of goods by the Amerindians. It let the grant holder Christianize the Amerindians.
Indentured Servant
The process in which a migrant to the British American colonies pays for passage by agreeing to work for a set term for the person paying for them.
Middle Passage
The Part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas
Great Circut
The Network of Atlantic Ocean trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic System
The economic system of large financial institutions that first developed in early modern Europe.
European government policies of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their mother country.
A sphere of woman in quarters that are forbidden to men. Came to the western World from the Ottoman Empire.
Manila galleons
Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice a year across the pacific ocean to collect goods from the Philippines and Mexico.
A group from western Africa. From one of the Mali empires former conquest, the last empire of west Sudan emerged: the Songhai.
Suleiman the Magnificent
(1494-1566) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566. Significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean
The best of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until 1826. They were infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms.
(1487-1524CE)The founder of the Safavid empire. Conquered the whole of Iran when he was about twenty.
A city in Iran that was in comparison with Istanbul. It had architecture achievements and became the capital of the Safavid dynasty.
A city in Iran that was in comparison with Isfahan. Was a Muslim major city, and became the center of the Catholic Latin Empire.
(1483-1531CE) A Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who laid the basis for the Mughal dynasty.
(1542-1605) Sultan of the Mughal Empire in India from 1556 to 1605. Expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Indian religion created by the guru Nanak in Northwest India. When the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to the Mughal rule.
Members of the Society of Jesus founded in 1534. Helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe, and protested during the Protestant Reformation.
Matteo Ricci
(1552-1610) A roman theologian, and became a missionary to India. Used existing Chinese concepts to explain Christianity.
Francis Xavier
(1506-1552) Went to Mesoamerica and converted kings and people there.
Romanovs of Russia
Named after Mikhail Romanov, the tsar between 1613 and 1645. The Romanovs were the tsars after Romanov. The Romanovs ruled after the Muscovite rulers.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar from 1689 to 1725. Introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russians. Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.
(1654-1722) Qing emperor that ruled from 1662 to 1722. Oversaw the big expansion of the Qing empire.
Christianity in East Asia
Was accepted by some people, but in China it was intertwined into Confucian principles. Orthodox in the Russian empire was successful, but because Japan was closed, they could not be converted.
Qing and foreigners
The Qing thought foreigners as assistance for rebellious peoples of the Qing empire. They used trade, but were careful.
“closing of Japan”
(1633-1639)Japan was closed after the ban of Christianity. It was put into effect by the Tokugawa shogunate.
7 years war
(1756-1763) Involved all of the major European powers. The war ended Frances position as a major colonial American power. The French lost.
John Locke
(1632-1704) English Philosopher. Theory of mind is cited as origin for modern conceptions. Great thinker at the time after Renaissance.
French Revolution
(1789-1799) a period of political and social upheaval in which the French government underwent great change to form based on the Enlightenment principles.
American Revolution
(1775-1783) The political tension during the late 18th century. Thirteen colonies won, gained independence.
Haitan Revolution
(1791-1804) The only successful slave revolt. Established Haiti as the first republic ruled by blacks.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815) The meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to bring back the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
(1769-1832) Overthrew French Directory, became emperor of French. Failed to defeat Great Britain and returned to power but was sent to exile