• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

185 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The land bridge that the Paleo-Indians crossed when first migrating into America.
It is sunk in the Bering Sea.
Chapter 1, Page 4, 2nd paragraph.
The first humans to set foot on North America. Were hunters.
Chapter 1, Page 4, 3rd Paragraph.
Hopewell and Adena
Indian tribes that built large burial grounds where they buried the families of local elites.
Chapter 1, Page 6, "Mysterious Disappearances," 2nd Paragraph.
Mississippian Culture
A loose collection of communities dispersed along the Mississippi River from Louisiana to Illinois that shared similar technologies and beliefs.
Chapter 1, Page 6, "Mysterious Disappearances," 2nd Paragraph.
A huge fortification and ceremonial site in Illinois that originally rose high above the river.
Represented the greatest achievement of the Mississippian Peoples.
Chapter 1, Page 6, "Mysterious Disappearances," 2nd Paragraph.
Women owned the planting fields and houses, maintained tribal customs, and a role in tribal government.
Chapter 1, page 8, "Eastern Woodland Cultures," 6th Paragraph.
The value based upon when certain Europeans tried repeatedly to civilize the Indians. Persuading them to dress like colonists, attend white schools, live in permanent structures, and convert to Christianity.
Chapter 1, page 10, "Cultural Negotiations," 7th paragraph.
Ferdinand and Isabella
The married couple that set off a nation-building process that involved driving both the Jews and Muslims out of Spain.
Chapter 1, page 17, "Building New Nation-States," Paragraph 5
When the armies of Castile and Aragon waged holy war against the independent states that earlier had been captured by Muslims.
Chapter 1, page 18, "Imagining A New World," Paragraph 2
Men eager for personal glory and material gain, uncompromising in matters of religion, and unswerving in their loyalty to the crown.
Chapter 1, page 18, "Imagining A New World," Paragraph 3
A chain or cluster of islands formed tectonically.
I.E. Hawaii, the Indies, the Bahamas.
--==NOT IN BOOK==--
Iberian Peninsula
United from the Reconquista as an entire Christian state.
Chapter 1, page 18, "Imagining A New World," Paragraph 3
Treaty of Tordesailles
(1494) Divided the entire world along a line located 270 leagues west of the Azores. Any lands west of the line belonged to Spain.
Chapter 1, page 19, "Myths and Reality," Paragraph 10
The monarch rewarded the leaders of the conquest with Indian Villages. Provided with labor tribute in exchange for legal protection and religious guidance.
Chapter 1, page 20, "From Plunder to Settlement," Paragraph 2
The child of a Spanish-Indian couple.
Chapter 1, page 21, "From Plunder to Settlement," paragraph 5.
The child of a Spanish-Black couple.
Chapter 1, page 21, "From Plunder to Settlement," paragraph 5.
Martin Luther
Preached that God spoke through the Bible, but not through the pope or priests. Scripture taught that women and men were saved by faith alone. None of the traditional ritual observances could assure salvation. (Side 3 if stuck.)
95 Theses.
Chapter 1, page 25, "Militant Protestantism," paragraph 2.
John Calvin
Preached Predestination. Was a lawyer turned theologian, the Lord chose some persons for "election," the gift of salvation, while condemning others to eternal damnation.
Chapter 1, page 25, "Militant Protestantism," paragraph 3-4.
Phillip II
United the Empires of Spain and Portugal in 1580. Ordered the construction of a mighty fleet, hundreds of transport vessels designed to carry Spain's finest infantry across the English channel. The king believed that with his armada and the support of the exiled Catholics, Elizabeth would be swept from power.
His fleet was destroyed by severe weather and the more nimble English ships.
Chapter 1, page 26, "Religion, War, and Nationalism," paragraph 2-3.
Henry VIII
Was a main part in the Protestant Reformation in England. Tried to divorce his wife Catherine. When he died, his son Edward VI ruled.
Chapter 1, Pages 23-24, "Birth of English Protestantism," Paragraphs 3 on.
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's second wife. Gave birth to Elizabeth I.
Chapter 1, Page 23, "Birth of English Protestantism," Paragraph 5.
Elizabeth I
Formed the Anglican Church. Was not a supporter of Protestantism. Rule was often challenged by Mary. Assumed title "Supreme Head of the Church."
Chapter 1, Page 25, "Woman in Power," Paragraph 2.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
In 1569, he was appointed military governor of Munster. Cut off the heads of many enemy soldiers killed in battle.
Chapter 1, Page 27. "English Brutality," Paragraph 2.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Founded Virginia. First colony of Roanoke failed. Second colony of Roanoke failed.
Chapter 1, Pages 27-28, "An Unpromising Beginning: Mystery at Roanoke," Paragraphs 3 on.
Glorious Revolution
The largest political movement in England of its time. Exiled James II.
Chapter 2, Pages 34-35, "Breaking Away," Paragraphs 7 or so On.
Oliver Cromwell
Ruled England in martial law after the beheading of Charles I as the "Lord Protector." Ruled for 11 years until his death in 1660 of natural causes.
Chapter 2, Page 34, "Breaking Away," paragraphs 8-9.
Joint-Stock Company
Was the great idea for funding the trips to the New World. People could invest any amount of money into it, and could expect to receive that amount back. (Side 3 if stuck)
These worked. Amounted enough money to launch a colony in Virginia. I.E.: London Company.
Chapter 2, Page 35-36, "Entrepreneurs in Virginia," Paragraphs 1-2.
Richard Hakluyt
Described of the riches and treasures in Virginia.
Chapter 2, Page 36, "Entrepreneurs in Virginia," Paragraph 2.
Captain John Smith
The savior of Jamestown. Brought order out of anarchy. In 1608, he seized control of the ruling council and instituted a tough military discipline.
Chapter 2, Page 37, "Spinning Out of Control," Paragraph 1.
Sir John Rolfe
Helped to bring a source of revenue to Virginia by growing tobacco. Married Pocahontas.
Chapter 2, pages 38-39, "'Stinking Weed,'" Paragraphs 1-2.
Sir Edwin Sandys
Revamped the economic system of Jamestown and Virginia. Turned it into a profitable enterprise. Formed the House of Burgesses and the headright system.
Chapter 2, page 39, "'Stinking Weed,'" Paragraphs 3-4.
Virginia Company
The Joint-Stock Company responsible for the funding of the colonization of Virginia. Ultimately failed when Sandys took over.
Chapter 2, page 39, "'Stinking Weed,'" Paragraph 3.
Colonists that covered their own transportation cost to America were guaranteed a 50-acre lot for which they paid only a small annual rent.
Chapter 2, page 39, "'Stinking Weed,'" Paragraph 4.
House of Burgesses
An elective representative assembly. Established when Dale's martial law was eased.
Chapter 2, page 39, "'Stinking Weed,'" Paragraph 3.
Sir George Calvert
Driving force behind the founding of Maryland. Gave his son a charter for Maryland.
Chapter 2, page 41, "Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics," Paragraphs 2-3.
Lord Baltimore
Cecilius Calvert. Set up a feudal system in Maryland.
Chapter 2, page 41-42, "Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics," Paragraphs 3-4 on.
People who separated themselves from the Church of England.
Chapter 2, page 42, "Reforming England in America," paragraphs 2-3.
William Bradford
Wrote Of Plymouth Plantation. Held the Plymouth County together as governor. Received help from Indians, such as Squanto.
Chapter 2, page 42-43, "Reforming England in America," paragraphs 3,5-6.
Mayflower Compact
The document that established a sort of democratic system. Saved Plymouth County from utter anarchy.
Chapter 2, page 43, "Reforming England in America," paragraphs 5-6.
Die-Hard Protestants.
Chapter 2, page 43, "The Great Migration," paragraphs 1-2.
John Winthrop
Very pious. Future governor of Massachusetts Bay. He and his associates met secretly and signed the Cambridge agreement.
Chapter 2, page 44, "The Great Migration," Paragraphs 7 and 9
Each village church was independent of outside interference. The people were the main rulers of the church.
Chapter 2, page 45-46, "A City on a Hill," paragraph 6.
Furthered the idea of Predestination. Anne Hutchinson was the main preacher of this ideal.
Chapter 2, Page 47, "Limits of Religious Dissent," paragraph 4
Governor Nicolls
Conquered New Jersey, was later elected governor after overthrowing the Duke of York.
Chapter 2, Pages 51-53, "Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Horizon" and "Confusion in New Jersey. Paragraphs 6; all
Peter Stuyvesant
Defended against Nicolls. Urged the settlers to resist the English.
Chapter 2, Page 52, "Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Horizon," Paragraph 6
George Fox
Responsible for the major success of the Quaker Movement.
Chapter 2, Page 53, "Quaker Beliefs and Practice," paragraph 1
The voters in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Chapter 2, Page 44, "The Great Migration," paragraph 9
Roger Williams
Preached extreme separatism. Questioned the validity of the Massachusetts Bay charter.
Chapter 2, Page 47, "Limits of Religious Dissent," Paragraph 3
Anne Hutchinson
Preached Antinomianism. Was exiled from Rhode Island
Chapter 2, Page 47-48, "Limits of Religious Dissent," Paragraphs 4 and 7
William Penn
The founder of Pennsylvania. He did the Holy Experiment. The most popular Quaker of all time.
Chapter 2, Page 54, <<ALL>>
Charter of Liberties
A new frame of government that established a unicameral legislature and gave the representatives the right to initiate bills. Pennsylvania
Chapter 2, page 55, "Settling Pennsylvania," paragraph 5
James Oglethorpe
The founding father of Georgia.
Chapter 2, Page 58, "The Founding of Georgia," Paragraphs 2-4
Sumptuary Law
Statutes that limited the wearing of fine apparel to the wealthy and prominent, mainly in Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay.
Chapter 3, Page 69, "Social Hierarchy in New England," Paragraph 4
Navigation Act
3 Parts. Attempted to eliminate the Dutch presence in the colonial Market, as they were the intermediaries.
Chapter 3, Page 80, "Regulating Colonial Trade," Paragraph 4
Staple Act
With a few noted exceptions, nothing could be imported into America unless it had first been transshipped through England, adding a large sum to the cost of importation. (Side 3 for hint)
The Second Navigation Act (1663).
Chapter 3, Page 80, "Regulating Colonial Trade," Paragraph 3
Plantation Duty
A sum of money equal to normal English customs duties to be collected on enumerated products at the various colonial ports. (Side 3 for hint)
The Navigation Act of 1673.
Chapter 3, Page 80, "Regulating Colonial Trade," Paragraph 7
Half-Way Covenant
Allowed the grandchildren of persons in full communion to be baptized even though their parents could not demonstrate conversation.
Chapter 3, Page 66, "Commonwealth of Families," Paragraph 7
Nathaniel Bacon
Tried to receive a license to engage in the fur trade, Berkeley denied him. Led a rebellion against Berkeley's Green Faction and his monopoly.
Chapter 3, pages 81-82, "Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion," Paragraphs 3, 5, 7 on.
Great Migration
The large migration of either Puritans or Africans to the colonies in the 1500s - 1600s.
Charles II
Sent forces to quash Bacon's Rebellion. Was the king during the passage of the Navigation Acts
Chapter 3, pages 80 and 82, "Response to Economic Competition," "Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion," Paragraphs 3; 9
Royal Africa Company
Chartered to meet the colonial planters' demands for black laborers
Chapter 3, page 76, "Roots of Slavery," Paragraph 7
Stono Uprising
150 South Carolina blacks rose up, seizing guns and ammunition, and murdered several white planters.
Chapter 3, page 78, "Constructing African American Identities," paragraph 7
One nation's commercial success translated directly into a loss for its rivals. The economic system for England.
Chapter 3, Page 79, "Response to Economic Competition," paragraph 1
Sir William Berkeley
The royal governor of Virginia, held a monopoly on the fur trade, denied Nathaniel Bacon's every request.
Chapter 3, pages 81-82, "Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion," Paragraphs 2 on.
Glorious Revolution
The overthrowing of Edmund Andros in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Chapter 3, page 83, "The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony," paragraph 5
Slave Trade
There was an increasing number of slaves being sold in the colonies, as the labor demand increased.
Chapter 3, page 73, "Roots of Slavery," paragraph 1
Jacob Leisler
Led a rebellion against the New York government. Namely conflicted with Henry Sloughter. Executed in 1691.
Chapter 3, pages 85-86, "The Glorious Revolution in New York and Maryland," Paragraphs 3-4.
Cotton Mather
The leading Congregational minister of Massachusetts Bay, argued that God had created "far more godly Women" than men. Her father played a large part in the Salem Witch Trials.
Chapter 3, page 67, "Women's Lives in Puritan New England," paragraph 3.
John Winthrop
The governor of Massachusetts. Was removed from power by The Court of Chancery.
Chapter 3, pages 82-83, "The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony," paragraphs 1 and 3
Enumerated Goods
Goods such as tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyewoods, and ginger, that were restricted by the Navigation Act of 1660.
Chapter 3, Page 80, "Regulating Colonial Trade," Paragraph 1
Nat Turner
A slave in Virginia that led Turner's Rebellion.
<<Not in chapter 3>>
Jamestown Massacre
Indian uprising in 1622 in Virginia. A simple trade between the Indians and colonists turned into a brawl with Indians slaughtering every settler in sight.
Bacon's Rebellion
The battle between Berkeley and Nathaniel.
Chapter 3, Page 82, "Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion," paragraph 7.
Edmund Andros
The royal governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony that was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution.
Chapter 3, Page 83, "The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony," paragraph 5
Charles II return from exile to rule England as king.
Chapter 3, page 79, "Rise of a Commercial Empire," paragraph 2
King Phillips War
The war between Metacomet's tribe of the Wampanoag, allied with the Narragansett, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony's militia.
Chapter 3, page 83, "The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony," Paragraph 2
William and Mary
These two monarchs accepted a Bill or Rights, a document stipulating the constitutional rights of all Englishmen. Launched the Glorious Revolution of Massachusetts in full swing.
Chapter 3, page 83, "The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony," Paragraph 5
Great Awakening
The rise of emotional thinking rather than reason. The revival of religious importance in the 1700s
Chapter 4, page 110, "Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies," Paragraph 1
Fort Duquesne
The formidable fort located at the strategic point at the fork in the Ohio River. During King George's War, Washington constructed Fort Necessity to try and siege it. However, his plan failed.
Chapter 4, Page 119, "King George's War and its Aftermath," Paragraphs 4-5.
King George's War
Also known as the War of the Austrian Succession. The war between England and France over the siege of Louisbourg.
Chapter 4, Page 118-119, "King George's War and Its Aftermath," <<All>>
Albany Plan
Franklin's revolutionary plan for the unification of the colonies. Called for the formation of a Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the various colonies to oversee matters of common defense, western expansion, and Indian affairs.
Chapter 4, Page 120, "Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat," Paragraphs 1-2.
Albany Congress
The Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the various colonies to oversee matters of common defense, western expansion, and Indian affairs.
Chapter 4, Page 120, "Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat," Paragraphs 1-2.
Seven Years War
French and Indian War. William Pitt and his assault on Quebec. Ended with the Peace of Paris.
Chapter 4, pages 121-122. "Seven Years' War," <<All>>
Peace of Paris
Great Britain took possession of an empire that stretched around the globe. Ended the Seven Years' War
Chapter 4, pages 122. "Seven Years' War," Paragraph 8
George Whitefield
The most inspiring preacher of the Great Awakening. Not an original thinker, but was an excellent public speaker. Many other preachers followed his example.
Chapter 4, Pages 111-112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," <<All>>
Jonathan Edwards
Sparked the Great Awakening in Massachusetts. Preached Calvinism and hardened predestination. Scared people back into religion.
Chapter 4, Page 111, "The Great Awakening," paragraphs 3-4
The lawmaking body in England. Is governed by an implied constitution, there is no real document.
Chapter 4, Page 113, "The English Constitution," Paragraphs 1-3.
William Pitt
The extremely skilled general that won the Seven Years' War. His military expertise was unmatched.
Chapter 4, Pages 121-122, "The Seven Years' War," <All>
General Braddock
Led the march on Fort Duquesne. Was ambushed, and led a completely unorganized counterattack. He and 70% of his troops died.
Chapter 4, Pages 120-121, "Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat," Paragraphs 3-5.
John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon
Penned Cato's Letters between 1720 and 1723. Were one of the first people to speak out against constitutional abuse
Chapter 4, Page 114, "The Reality of British Politics," Paragraphs 3-4
John Locke
The most influential Enlightenment thinker. Believed that there was a Social Contract between a government and their peoples.
Chapter 4, Page 106, "American Enlightenment," Paragraphs 1-3
Pennsylvania Dutch
Later to be known as the Amish. The second largest group of non-English settlers that emigrated to America. Were led by Muehlenberg.
Chapter 4, Pages 97-98, "Germans Search for a Better Life," Paragraphs <<All>>
Middle Ground
The last chance of survival for Indians. The backcountry beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Chapter 4, Pages 99, 102-103, "Native Americans Stake out a Middle Ground," <<All>>
Gilbert Tennet
The most famous itinerant preacher. A Presbyterian of Scots-Irish background. His most famous sermon was "On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry," set off a storm of protest from established ministers who were understandably insulted.
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," Paragraph 4.
Molasses Act
Placed a heavy duty on molasses imported from foreign ports
Part of the Navigation Acts.
Chapter 4, Page 108, "Economic Transformation," Paragraph 2
Charles Chauncy
Minister of the prestigious First Church of Boston that raised troubling issues. He questioned revivalists the brought about the Great Awakening.
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," paragraph 6
Cato's Letters
They warned that if England's rulers were corrupt, then the people could not expect the balanced constitution to save them from tyranny. Written by Trenchard and Gordon between 1720 and 1723
Chapter 4, Page 113, "The Reality of British Politics," Paragraph 3
James Davenport
The psychotic anti-intellectual that preached upon the the New Lights.
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," Paragraphs 6-7
"Old Lights"
People that held onto their religion, mostly Christian. Against the Great Awakening.
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," paragraph 5
"New Lights"
Listened to those like Whitefield. Supporters for the Great Awakening
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," paragraph 4
The Old Lights' other name. Followed their religion die-hard.
Chapter 4, Page 112, "The Voice of Evangelical Religion," paragraph ?
Henry Mühlenberg
Helped German Lutherans through a difficult cultural adjustment, and organized a meeting of local pastors and lay delegates that ordained ministers of their own choosing. Helped the Germans move to Pennsylvania
Chapter 4, page 98, "Germans Search for a Better Life," paragraph 3
Cotton Mather
Preached for women's religious rights.
<<Not in chapter 4>>
Transportation Act
Allowed judges in England, Scotland, and Ireland to send convicted felons to the American Colonies.
Chapter 4, pages 98-99, "Convict Settlers," Paragraph 1
King William's War
AKA War of the League of Augsburg. Opposition to French bid for control of Europe. New England troops assault Quebec under Sir William Phips. Treaty of Ryswick.
Chapter 4, Page 120,
Queen Anne's War
War of the Spanish Succession. Austria and France hold rival claims to Spanish Throne. Attack on Deerfield. Treaty of Utrecht.
Chapter 4, Page 120,
King George's War
War of the Austrian Succession. Struggle among Britian, Spain, and France for control of New World territory; among France, Prussia, and Austria for control of central Europe. Capture of Louisbourg under William Pepperrell. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Chapter 4, Page 120,
Navigation Acts
More items were added to the enumerated goods list in the 1700s. Furs, trees, molasses, iron, and others.
Chapter 4, Pages 108-109, "Economic Transformation," <<All>>
Benjamin Franklin
The mastermind behind the Albany Plan. Supported the Enlightenment. The most recognized Enlightenment thinker.
Chapter 4, Pages 107-108 and 120, "Benjamin Franklin," and "Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat," <<All>>; Paragraphs 1-2
Detailed the rights of peoples. Was a large conspiracy over how much rights people get.
<<Not in chapter>>
Washington crossed the Delaware River, taking the Hessians by surprise on Christmas Day.
Chapter 5, pages 150-151, "Times that Try Men's Souls," <<All>>
The turning point in the war. Showed the French that the Americans could win a battle.
Chapter 5, pages 152-153 "The French Alliance," paragraphs 1-4
With the control of this town, the British could control the entire south.
Chapter 5, Page 154, "The Final Campaign," Paragraph 3
Cornwallis out-maneuvered the American forces, capturing or killing 750 during the course of the battle.
Chapter 5, Page 154, "The Final Campaign," Paragraph 4
The battle of Yorktown was only a success because of the French support. Was the final battle in the war.
Chapter 5, 153, "The French Alliance," Last paragraph
Valley Forge
The campsite 25 miles from Philadelphia where diseases took twenty-five hundred american lives.
Ch 5 P 152
General Cornwallis
The British general at Charleston, and Yorktown. He was defeated at Yorktown
Ch 5 P 155
General Burgoyne
British general at the battle of Saratoga in a crushing defeat.
Ch 5 P 151-152
General Howe
British general that was defeated at Boston, victory at New York City, loss in New Jersey, successful occupation of Philadelphia.
Ch 5
General Washington
The American savior of the Revolution. The greatest militant mind of America.
Stamp Act
Printed Documents issued only on special stamped paper purchased from stamp distributors. Caused riots in cities.
Ch 5
Sugar Act
Revised duties on sugar, coffee, tea, wine, other imports; expanded jurisdiction of vice-admiralty courts
Virginia Resolves
A series of resolutions passed by the Stamp Act Congress.
Ch 5
Earl of Bute
George III's first chief minister, who had little to none political experience.
Ch 5
Lord Rockingham
Lord of Treasury with no political experience, wanted to repeal the Stamp Act, but he could not.
Ch 5
William Pitt
Rockingham's ministry gave way to his, who was now Earl of Chatham.
Ch 5
Charles Townshend
Had a plan that would save the English budget crisis. His Revenue Acts only angered the colonists more.
Ch 5
Quartering Act
Colonists must supply British troops with housing and other items.
Ch 5
Lord Hillsborough
England's secretary for American affairs. Forbid the circular letter to no avail.
Ch 5
Thomas Hutchinson
Royal governor of Massachusetts under Lord North. His customs officials were his downfall
Ch 5
"Christian Sparta"
Committees of Correspondence
Communicate grievances to villages throughout Massachusetts. Adams' Idea.
Ch 5
Tea Act
Parliament gives East India Company right to sell tea directly to Americans; some duties on tea reduced
Ch 5
Gaspee Incident
Rhode Islanders burning a customs vessel. When royal customs officers came to investigate, no one knew a thing.
Ch 5
Coercive Acts
Closes port of Boston; restructures Massachusetts government; restricts town meetings; troops quartered in Boston; British officials accused of crimes sent to England or Canada for trial
Ch 5
Townshend Acts
New duties on glass, lead, paper, paints, tea; customs collections tightened in America
Ch 5
Declaratory Act
Parliament declares its sovereignty over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Ch 5
Revenue Act of 1764
Also known as the Sugar Act
Ch 5
1st Continental Congress
Got together and practiced nonimportation. Showed that the most prominent figures could get together and laid the basis for the second of this.
Ch 5
2nd Continental Congress
Framed the Declaration of Independence, formed the Continental Army.
Ch 5
Patrick Henry
Warned the colonists at Lexington and Concord that the Redcoats were coming
Ch 5
King George III
The Tyrant king that ruled according to his relationships with friends.
Ch 5
Samuel Adams
The leading patriot during the revolutionary period. He suggested the formation of a committee of correspondence. Stated that the goal of America was the creation of a "Christian Sparta." Also the creator of the Sons of Liberty.
Chapter 5, Page 141-142, "Last Days of Imperial Rule, 1770-1773," Paragraphs 5-6
John Adams
Stated that a representative assembly should actually mirror its constituents.
Chapter 5, Page 131, "No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective," Paragraph 4
Thomas Paine
The author of Common Sense. Was the person that drove the Americans much closer to independence.
Chapter 5, Pages 146-147, "Beginning The World Over Again," Paragraphs 5-7
Common Sense
Written by Thomas Paine. Stripped kingship of historical and theological justification. It attacked the whole idea of a mixed and balanced constitution. Best selling essay of its time.
Chapter 5, Pages 146-147, "Beginning The World Over Again," Paragraphs 5-7
American Crisis
A pamphlet written by Paine during the Revolution. "The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it *now* deserves... love and thanks..."
Chapter 5, Page 151, "Times that Try Men's Souls," Paragraph 2.
John Locke - "Two Treatises on Government"
At the time, seemed to colonial readers as a brilliant description of what was in fact American political practice. Claimed that all people possessed natural and inalienable rights. The rights of Life, Liberty, and property.
Chapter 5, Page 131, "Ideas About Power and Virtue," Paragraph 2
Public Virtue
The belief of doing what is best for your constituency. The sacrifice of self-interest to the public good. The struggle between power and liberty.
Chapter 5, Page 132, "Ideas About Power and Virtue," Paragraph 4
George Grenville
The man tasked with paying off the national debt of England. Drafted the Revenue Act of 1764, also known as the Sugar Act. Also drafted the Stamp Act
Chapter 5, Page 133-134, "Paying Off the National Debt," Paragraphs 1-3
"Sons of Liberty"
The group of men who actively protested the English duties with riots and boycotts. Samuel Adams was the founder.
Chapter 5, Page 134, "Popular Protest," Paragraphs 2-3
The Massachusetts Circular Letter
A provocative appeal which it sent directly to other colonial assemblies. It requested suggestions on how best to thwart the Townshend Acts. When Hillsborough tried to intervene, it gained an extreme amount of popularity, passing 92 to 17. 92 became a symbol of Patriotism.
Chapter 5, Page 137, "Fueling the Crisis," Paragraphs 5-6
Articles of Confederation
Jealously guarded the sovereignty of the states. The delegates who drafted the framework shared a general republican conviction that power--especially power so far removed from the people--was inherently dangerous and that the only way to preserve liberty was to place as many constraints as possible on federal authority. The ruling document from 1777-1787
Chapter 6, Page 170-171, "Articles of Confederation," <<ALL PARAGRAPHS>>
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided the Northwest Territory into townships, 36 square miles. Six miles on each side, divided into 36 sections. Section 16 was always reserved for education, and 4 more were reserved for the government. Allowed the purchase of $1 an acre (one section), at a minimum of 640 acres.
Chapter 6, Page 174, "Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation's Major Achievement," Paragraphs 3-7
Northwest Ordinance
The Ordinance of 1787. Authorized the creation of between three and five territories, to be ruled by a governor, a secretary, and three judges appointed by Congress. When the population reaches five thousand, they could elect and assembly, but its decisions were subject to the governor's absolute veto. When the population reaches sixty thousand, they could draft a constitution and petition for full statehood. It contained a bill of rights that guaranteed right to a trial by jury, freedom of religion, and due process of law. Also it outlawed slavery.
Chapter 6, Page 174, "Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation's Major Achievement," Paragraphs 8-9
Constitutional Convention
The spring of 1787, fifty-five men representing twelve states. Practiced a contract of secrecy. The delegates of it decided to vote by state, but decided that that they only need a majority instead of the nine states required according to the Articles.
Chapter 6, Pages 179-180 "The Philadelphia Convention," Paragraphs 1-3
Theory of State Sovereignty
States will normally control their own laws and regulations, except where this conflicts with individual rights under the Constitution, or with Federal law. a legal principle that US states are acknowledged by the Constitution to have control over the laws and activities within their jurisdictions. This is subject to restriction in some cases by the Congress under Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution, to prevent individual states from discrimination in interstate commerce.
Society of the Cincinnati
A hereditary organization in which membership passed from father to eldest son. They meant no harm, but simply wanted to maintain old friendships.
Chapter 6, Page 163, "Social and Political Reform," Paragraph 1
San Souci Club
These laws allowed a landholder to either pass his entire estate to his eldest son or to declare that his property could never be divided, sold or given away.
Chapter 6, Page 163, "Social and Political Reform," Paragraph 3
John Woolman
A trip he took through the Southern Colonies as a young man forever impressed upon him "the dark gloominess" of slavery. He was the leading white abolitionist of the revolutionary period.
Chapter 6, Page 164, "African Americans in the New Republic," Paragraph 1
Federalist Number 10
In his essay, Madison's federal system was not a small state writ large; it was something entirely different, a government based on the will of the people and yet detached from their narrowly based demands.
Chapter 6, Page 178, "The Genius of James Madison," Paragraph 8.
Shay's Rebellion
The rebellion of farmers disgruntled about always being in debt to eastern creditors. They complained of high taxes, of high interest rates, and, most of all, of a state government insensitive to their problems.
Chapter 6, Page 179, "Constitutional Reform," Paragraph 2
Virginia Plan
It envisioned a national legislature consisting of two houses, one elected directly by the people, the other chosen by the first house from nominations made by the state assemblies. Representation in both houses was proportionate to population. Favored the large states, written by Madison
Chapter 6, Page 180, "Inventing a Federal Republic," Paragraphs 1-2
Committee of Detail
The group that prepared the final draft of the Constitution.
Chapter 6, Page 184, "The Last Details," Paragrahps 1-3
Nationalists vs. Localists
People that called for major constitutional reforms and were extreme federalists were... Nationalists or Localists?
The people that were apprehensive of fiscal plans and declared that a national bank would be associated with a corrupt monarchical government were... Nationalists or Localists?
Chapter 6 Page 176, "The Nationalist Critique," Paragraphs 7-14
Federalists Vs. Anti-federalists
F: Stood for supreme national authority. Envisioned creation of a strong centralized national government capable of fielding a formidable army.
AF: Critics of the Constitution, who tended to be somewhat poorer, less urban, and less educated than their opponents.
Chapter 6, Page 185, "Federalists and Antifederalists," Paragraphs 1-8
Jay-Gordoqui Treaty
In order to allow American merchants to trade directly with Spain, thus opening up an important new market to ships from New England and the middle states, then the United States might forgo navigation of the Mississippi River for 25 years. The terms of this angered the New Englanders, for this treaty favored the south immensely.
Chapter 6, Page 177, "Diplomatic Humiliation," Paragraph 4
Federalist #84
Essay where Hamilton bluntly reminded the American people that "the constitution is itself... a BILL OF RIGHTS" But after the adoption of the Constitution had been assured, Madison moderated his stand. If nothing else, passage of a bill of rights would appease able men such as George Mason and Edmund Randolph, who might otherwise remain alienated from the new federal system.
Chapter 6, Page 188, "Adding the Bill of Rights," Paragraph 2
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu's essay. Declared flatly that a republican government could not flourish in a large territory.
Chapter 6, Page 178, "The Genius of James Madison.
3/5 Compromise
For the purpose of determining representation in the lower house, slaves would be counted, but not as much as free persons.
Chapter 6, Page 181, "Compromise Saves the Constitution," Paragraph 3
William Paterson
The drafter of the New Jersey Plan.
Chapter 6, Page 180, "Inventing a Federal Republic," Paragraphs 3-5
Those in favor of republicanism.
Chapter 6, ...???
Benjamin Banneker
Maryland's African American astronomer and mathematician. Enjoyed a well-deserved reputation for his contributions to science.
Chapter 6, Page 165, "African Americans in the New Republic," Paragraph 4.
Phillis Wheatley
Boston's celebrated "African muse." Enjoyed national fame.
Chapter 6, Page 165, "African Americans in the New Republic," Paragraph 4.
Society for the Relief of Free Negroes
The group that Benjamin Franklin helped to organize. Was possibly the first anti-slavery society in America
Chapter 6, Page 165, "African Americans in the New Republic," Paragraph 5.
Henry Knox
He accepted his wife's affirmation of power in the household after his return from the revolution.
Chapter 6, Page 167, "The Challenge of Women's Rights," Paragraphs 3-4
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Written by John Dickinson. Envisioned the creation of a strong central government.
Chapter 6, Page 170, "Articles of Confederation," Paragraph 1
New Jersey Plan
Drafted by William Paterson, gave more power to states. Retained the unicameral legislature in which each state possessed one vote and that at the same time gave Congress extensive new powers to tax and regulate trade.
Chapter 6, Page 180, "Inventing a Federal Republic," Paragraphs 3-5
Bill of Rights
Protected the freedoms of assembly, speech, religion, and the press; guaranteed speedy trial by impartial jury; preserved the people's rights to bear arms; and prohibited unreasonable searches.
Chapter 6, Page 188, "Adding the Bill of Rights," Paragraphs 4-5
Robert Morris
A leading nationalist who called for political reform. Advanced the fiscal plans calling for the national bank.
Chapter 6, Page 176, "The Nationalist Critique," Paragraphs 7-8
John Jay
Negotiated with Don Diego de Gardoqui with the Spanish territory and Mississippi River.
Chapter 6, Page 177, "Diplomatic Humiliation," Paragraphs 3-4
James Madison
The greatest supporter of the Bill of Rights, and the leading Anti-Federalist
Chapter 6, Page 188, "Adding to the Bill of Rights," <<ALL>>
Governor Morris
The one asked to make final stylistic changes in the wording of the Constitution, the governor of Pennsylvania
Chapter 6, Page 184, "We, the People," Paragraph 2
Status of Slavery
<<This is a NOTE, not a question>>
The status of slavery at this point: There was still slavery going on, however, some people were making attempts to abolish it. This is a great step towards abolition. However, there was still the unequal treatment of blacks, as seen in the Three-Fifths Compromise.
Chapter 6, <<First 1/5th of Chapter>>