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137 Cards in this Set

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Three main cavities:
Oral, nasal, pharyngeal
Change the resonance by:
changing size or shape
Resonance
process of filtering sounds produced through the oral, nasal, or pharyngeal cavities by changing configuration of each cavity
Articulation
process of shaping the articulators to distinct speech sounds
Articulators
used to alter the shape and size of the vocal tract to achieve different speech sounds
Mobile Articulators (7)
Mandible †
Jaw Muscles *
Face (Lips & Cheeks) *
Tongue *
Velum (soft palate) *
Pharynx (throat) *
Immobile Articulators (3)
Alveolar ridge †
Hard palate †
Teeth †
Oral Cavity
[from the lips to the posterior faucial pillar]
lips in front
cheeks on the sides
tongue on the bottom
teeth around edges
roof of mouth on top
palatine tonsils between 2 faucial pillars
posterior faucial pillar at back
Occlusions
Class I (Occlusion) no air allowed
Class II Malocclusion: overbite
Class III Malocclusion: underbite
Nasal Cavity
[from the nares to the nasal choanae (“funnel”)]
nares in front
nasal philtrum between nose and lips
nasal septum separates left & right sides of nasal cavity
3 nasal conchae (turbinades) create three meatuses (passageways)
nasal choanae (“funnel”) at back
Pharyngeal Cavity (“Pharynx”
[from the nasal choanae and posterior faucial pillar to the laryngeal vestibule]
closed posteriorly & laterally by pharyngeal wall muscles
3 segments:
1. nasopharynx (pharyngeal tonsil and Eustachian tube opening)
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx (hypopharynx)
suture joint
fusion of skull bones; immobile joint; occurs during development
fontanelle
unfused connection between skull bones in infants, before fusion
foramen
hole (be sure to specify which hole)
symphysis
a point of union in a single bone where two halves once joined
alveolus
a small hole/pocket/sack
mental
chin
Facial bones
Palatine
Zygomatic
Mandible
Maxilla
Hyoid
Landmarks of Mandible
corpus (body) of mandible
mental symphysis
mental protuberance
alveolar arch
mylohyoid groove
angle of mandible
ramus of mandible
coronoid process
condylar process
Landmarks of Maxilla
frontal process
zygomatic process
alveolar process
anterior nasal spine
palatine process
alveolar ridge
intermaxillary suture
premaxillary suture
Landmarks of Hyoid
Corpus
Greater horn
Lesser horn
Cranial bones
Sphenoid
Temporal
Landmarks of sphenoid bone
medial pterygoid plate
lateral pterygoid plate
Landmarks of temporal bone
external auditory meatus
mastoid process
styloid process
zygomatic process of temporal bone + temporal process of zygomatic bone form zygomatic arch
Functions of facial muscles
• Speech production [Filter]
• Facial expression
• Chewing, eating from a utensil, prevent drooling, sucking from a straw
Functions of Jaw Muscles
• Speech production [Filter]
• Chewing & biting (among strongest muscles in body)
Functions of the Tongue
• Speech production [Filter] (tongue as mobile articulator)
• Chewing & swallowing
• Taste sensation
oris
mouth
labii
lips
anguli oris
corner of mouth
orbicularis
makes a complete circle
mental & “genio-“
chin
glossal
tongue
all muscles of the face
are innervated by CN VII (Facial Nerve).
occur as a pair, on the left & right sides.
Origin: orbicularis oris
(superior & inferior)
corner of lips
Insertion: orbicularis oris
(superior & inferior)
opposite corner of lips
origin: risorius
origin: risorius
posterior face & masseter muscle
insertion: risorius
corner of mouth
origin: zygomatic
origin: zygomatic
zygomatic bone
Insertion: zygomatic
corner of mouth & upper lip
origin: levator labii superioris
origin: levator labii superioris
infraorbital margin of maxilla
insertion: levator labii superioris
upper lip
origin: levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
origin: levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
frontal process of maxilla
insertion: levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
upper lip
Origin: levator anguli oris
Origin: levator anguli oris
maxilla (below infraorbital margin)
[deep to levator labii superioris]
Insertion: levator anguli oris
corner of mouth
origin: depressor labii inferioris
origin: depressor labii inferioris
mandible
[deep to depressor anguli oris]
insertion: depressor labii inferioris
lower lip
origin: depressor anguli oris
origin: depressor anguli oris
mandible
insertion: depressor anguli oris
insertion: depressor anguli oris
corner of mouth &
upper lip
origin: mentalis
mandible
[deep to depressor labii inferioris]
insertion: mentalis
skin of chin below
origin: buccinator
origin: buccinator
pterygomandibular ligament
alveolar processes of mandible & maxilla
insertion: buccinator
corners of mouth
All jaw muscles but geniohyoid innervated by
CN V (Trigeminal)
geniohyoid innervation:
*CN XII (Hypoglossal)
origin: temporalis
temporal bone
insertion: temporalis
insertion: temporalis
coronoid process of mandible
origin: masseter
origin: masseter
zygomatic arch
insertion: masseter
insertion: masseter
angle & ramus of mandible
origin: medial pterygoid
origin: medial pterygoid
medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate (sphenoid bone)
insertion: medial pterygoid
insertion: medial pterygoid
medial surface of angle of mandible
origin: lateral pterygoid
origin: lateral pterygoid
lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate (sphenoid bone)
insertion: lateral pterygoid
insertion: lateral pterygoid
condylar process of mandible
origin: anterior belly of digastric
symphysis of mandible
insertion: anterior belly of digastric
hyoid bone
origin: mylohyoid
mylohyiod groove of mandible
insertion: mylohyoid
hyoid bone
origin: geniohyoid
origin: geniohyoid
Symphysis of mandible
insertion: geniohyoid
hyoid bone
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue
superior longitudinal muscles
inferior longitudinal muscles
transverse muscles
vertical muscles

The intrinsic muscles of the tongue help with fine, controlled movements for articulation.
Each of these muscles occurs as a pair, on the left & right sides.
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE
genioglossus
hyoglossus
styloglossus

*The extrinsic muscles of the tongue help with gross movements of the tongue as a unit.
*The bulk of the tongue is made up of the genioglossus muscle.
*Each of these muscles occurs as a pair, on the left & right sides.
course: superior longitudinal muscles
back to front of tongue
action: superior longitudinal muscles
elevate tongue tip
pull tongue to side
*retract tongue
course: inferior longitudinal muscles
back to front of tongue
action: inferior longitudinal muscles
depress tongue tip
pull tongue to side
*retract tongue
course: transverse muscles
midline to lateral edges of tongue
action: transverse muscles
narrow the tongue
course: vertical muscles
inferior to superior surface of tongue
action: vertical muscles
flatten the tongue
pull tongue downward
origin: genioglossus
origin: genioglossus
mental symphysis of mandible
insertion: genioglossus
insertion: genioglossus
all along tongue at midline (fan-like)
action: genioglossus
protrude tongue anteriorly
depress tongue inferiorly
origin:hyoglossus
origin:hyoglossus
greater horns of hyoid bone
insertion: hyoglossus
insertion: hyoglossus
sides of tongue
action: hyoglossus
pulls sides of tongue down & back
origin: styloglossus
styloid process of temporal bone
insertion: styloglossus
sides of tongue
action: styloglossus
pulls tongue back (retract) & up (raise)
innervation of tongue muscles
CN XII hypoglossal nerve
Landmarks of oral cavity
labial frenulum
alveolar ridge
hard palate
velum (soft palate)
uvula
buccal cavities
anterior faucial pillar
(-palatoglossal arch/muscle)
palatine tonsil
posterior faucial pillar
(- palatopharyngeal arch/muscle)
Describe actions of velum related to oral/nasal speech sound production.
raises to close the velopharyngeal port for oral sounds and swallowing.
lowers to open the velopharyngeal port for nasal sounds (m, n, ŋ) and breathing.
The bulk of the velum is made up of the
levator veli palatini muscle.
origin: levator veli palatini
temporal bone, near styloid process
action: levator veli palatini
pull velum up & back
insertion: levator veli palatini
midline of velum
origin: musculus uvulae
posterior nasal spine
insertion: musculus uvulae
uvula
action: musculus uvulae
shorten velum & uvula
origin: palatoglossus
(anterior faucial pillar)
midline of velum
toward front
insertion: palatoglossus
(anterior faucial pillar)
sides of tongue
action: palatoglossus
(anterior faucial pillar)
depress velum
(raise tongue)
origin: palatopharyngeus
(posterior faucial pillar)
midline of velum
toward back
insertion: palatopharyngeus
(posterior faucial pillar)
thyroid cartilage
action: palatopharyngeus
(posterior faucial pillar)
depress velum
(narrow pharynx)
action: *tensor veli palatini
(opens Eustachian tube)
innervation of velum muscles (except tensor veli palatini)
X (Vagus)
pharyngeal branch
innervation of tensor veli palatini
V (Trigeminal)
Pharynx
courses from the nasal choanae to the laryngeal vestibule
(or skull base to the esophagus)
three parts of the pharynx:
nasopharynx – the space behind the nose and above the velum

oropharynx – the space behind the posterior faucial pillar, below the velum, and down to the hyoid bone

hypopharynx (laryngopharynx) – the space below the hyoid bone and above the esophagus (not including the larynx)
origin: superior pharyngeal constrictor
pterygomandibular ligament
(buccinator)
insertion: superior pharyngeal constrictor
midline of posterior pharynx
action: superior pharyngeal constrictor
narrow nasopharynx
(close velopharyngeal port - Passavant’s pad)
origin: middle pharyngeal constrictor
hyoid bone
insertion: middle pharyngeal constrictor
midline of posterior pharynx
action: middle pharyngeal constrictor
narrow oropharynx
origin: inferior pharyngeal constrictor
sides of thyroid cartilage
insertion: inferior pharyngeal constrictor
midline of posterior pharynx
action: inferior pharyngeal constrictor
narrow hypopharynx
origin: cricopharyngeus
(“upper esophageal sphincter; UES”)
sides of cricoid cartilage
insertion: cricopharyngeus
(“upper esophageal sphincter; UES”)
midline of posterior pharynx (top of esophagus)
action: cricopharyngeus
(“upper esophageal sphincter; UES”)
constrict upper esophageal opening
action: salpingopharyngeus
raise & dilate pharynx
action: stylopharyngeus
raise & dilate pharynx
innervation of pharyngeal muscles (except stylopharyngeus)
X (Vagus)
pharyngeal branch
innervation of stylopharyngeus
IX (Glossopharyngeal)
Facial muscles: (10)
orbicularis oris
risorius
zygomatic
levator labii superioris
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
levator anguli oris
depressor labii inferioris
depressor anguli oris
mentalis
buccinator
Jaw muscles: (7)
temporalis
masseter
medial pterygoid
lateral pterygoid
anterior belly of digastric
mylohyoid
geniohyoid
Action: orbicularis oris
(superior & inferior)
Round, Protrude, & Compress Lips
Action: Retract Lips (smile)
risorius
zygomatic
action: Elevate Upper Lip
levator labii superioris
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
levator anguli oris
action: Depress Lower Lip
depressor labii inferioris
depressor anguli oris
action: mentalis
Protrude Lower Lip & Wrinkle Chin (Pout)
action: buccinator
Compress Cheeks
action: Elevate Mandible (Close Mouth)
[Must work against gravity & apply force to chew food]
temporalis
masseter
medial pterygoid
action: lateral pterygoid
Protrude Jaw (when bilaterally contracted)
Lateralize Jaw (when unilaterally contracted)
action: Actively Depress Mandible (Open Mouth)
(*When hyoid is anchored down by infrahyoid muscles*)
anterior belly of digastric
mylohyoid
geniohyoid