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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hematologic system consists of...
The blood and bone marrow
The immune system consists of...
Lymphatic vessels and tissues and other organs that are related to these systems (spleen, liver, kidneys)
The primary objective of the blood is to...
Maintain a constant environment for the rest of the body's tissues
Blood is responsible for transportation of what elements to and from the body's tissues?
1) Oxygen
2) Carbon Dioxide
3) Nutrients
4) Heat
5) Waste Products
6) Hormones
Blood helps to regulate __________, ________, and ____________.
pH level, body temperature, and cellular water content.
Blood is considered a ___________ tissue.
The production and maturation of blood cells is called...
Red bone marrow manufactures all blood cells or ______________ in the blood. It makes them from __________.
Formed elements, Stem cells
Blood is composed of ______ and ________________.
Plasma and formed elements
The average adult body contains __ to __ Liters of blood.
4 to 6
Plasma consists of __% water and __% formed elements and comprises __% of total blood volume.
90% water, 10% formed elements, 55% of total blood volume.
Plasma contains...
1) Salts (electrolytes)
2) Nutrients
3) Nitrogenous waste products
4) Gasses
5) Hormones
6) Enzymes
The salts (electrolytes) contained in the plasma are...
1) Sodium (Na+)
2) Calcium (Ca+)
3) Potassium (K+)
4) Magnesium (Mg+)
Another name for the salts contained in blood plasma.
Electrolytes (Salts) control the chemical and acid base balance of the blood or ________ and assist in the body's chemical and fluid balance
pH level
Blood plasma contains ions of elements in the form of...
1) Bicarbonates
2) Sulfates
3) Chlorides
4) Phosphates
Blood plasma proteins are manufactured in the _______.
The four groups of blood plasma proteins are...
1) Albumin
2) Fibrinogen
3) Prothrombin
4) Globulin
Albumin constitutes __% to __% of plasma proteins.
60% to 80%
The function of albumin is to provide __________ to the circulating blood volume.
The thickness of albumin provides _______ pressure which helps to regulate blood volume and consequently, blood pressure.
Albumin loss or deficiency can result in drastic fluid shifts which can cause _____, ___________, and even _____.
Edema, Hypotension, Death
The plasma proteins fibrinogen and prothrombin are essential for ___________ or blood clotting.
Globulin proteins in the plasma divided into 3 categories which are...
1) Alpha Globulins
2) Beta Globulins
3) Gamma Globulins
Alpha and beta globulins act as ________ for molecules such as lipids.
Gamma globulins are __________ and are also called _______________.
Antibodies, immunoglobulins
Antibodies made by the body in response to foreign invaders are called...
Antibodies provide for __________ against infection and disease.
The largest group of plasma proteins is...
The formed elements of the blood constitute __% of total blood volume.
The formed elements of blood consist of...
1) Red Blood Cells, (RBC's) or erythrocytes
2) White Blood Cells, (WBC's) or leukocytes
3) Platelets, or thrombocytes
The most numerous of the blood cells are the ____________.
The life cycle of a RBC lasts about ____ days.
The ELEMENT that makes blood appear red is ____.
The molecule that resides on the RBC's that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide is...
Hemoglobin consists of...
1) Iron
The pigment in the element iron is...
Globin is a _______ in hemoglobin.
When the hemoglobin in the blood is saturated with oxygen, the blood color is...
Bright red
True or False: Deoxygenated blood is bluish in color.
False, deoxygenated blood is dark red in color.
True or False: Mature RBC's contain nuclei and can reproduce on their own.
False, RBC's when mature are incapeable of reproduction BECAUSE they have no nuclei.
White blood cells or WBC's are also called __________. (collective name for all types of WBC's)
WBC's, or leukocytes, are arranged in two divisions which are...
1) Granulocytes (granular leukocytes)
2) Agranulocytes (agranular leukocytes)
The 5 types of leukocytes are...
1) Basophils
2) Eosinophils
3) Neutrophils
4) Lymphocyte
5) Monocytes
The three granulocytes are...
1) Basophils
2) Eosinophils
3) Neutrophils
The two agranulocytes are...
1) Lymphocyte
2) Monocytes
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Involved in allergic and inflammatory reactions
2) Contain heparin (anticoagulant)
3) Release histamine when a foreign invader enters the body
4) Cause inflammatory & hypersensitive reaction (vasodilation, edema, itching, bronchial constriction)
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Speckled or grainy cytoplasm
2) Survive 12 to 36 hours
3) Increase during allergic reaction and parasitic infection
4) May assist in endocytosis (phagocytosis or pinocytosis)
5) May release chemical mediators during allergic reactions
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Most numerous of the granulocytes
2) Considered the first line of defense against bacteria
Neutrophils are also called _______________ neutrophils (PMN's) or _________ neutrophils (segs)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils or Segmented neutrophils
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Increase in number during bacterial infection, burns, or inflammation
2) Life span appx. 10 hours
Identify the leukocyte:
When demand for these granulocytes is very high, the bone marrow releases immature ones called BANDS.
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Transformed into macrophages, which are phagocytic cells
2) Play a role in acute and chronic inflammatory processes
3) High count may indicate viral or fungal infection, tuberculosis, or chronic disesase.
Identify the leukocyte:
1) Normal life span:100 to 300 days
2) Produced in the spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and hemopoietic tissue in red bone marrow
The two most important subgroups of lymphocytes are the...
1) B Lymphocytes (B cells)
2) T Lymphocytes (T cells)
Basophils are involved in the ___________ process and ________ reactions.
Inflammatory, Allergic
Eosinophils are involved in ________ reactions and _________ infections.
Allergic, Parasitic
Neutrophils are involved in ____________; defense against ________.
Phagocytosis, Bacteria
Monocytes are transformed into ___________; involved in ___________.
Macrophages, Phagocytosis
Lymphocytes are involved in the ______ response.
The smallest of the bloods formed elements is the...
Platelets or thrombocytes
Thrombocytes are _________ of larger cells.
Thrombocytes are formed in the ______________.
Red bone marrow
True or False: Thrombocytes have no nuclei and are incapeable of movement on their own.
False; they have no nuclei but are capable of movement in an ameboid fashion.
True or False: Thrombocytes are not necessary for coagulation.
False; thrombocytes are essential for coagulation, or blood clotting.
Cessation of bleeding,(Hemorrhage)
The initial hemostatic response is...
1) Vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
2) Platelet plug formation
3) Blood clotting (the coagulation process that forms a fibrin clot)
Escape of blood from blood vessels (Usually referenced when a considerable amount of blood is lost)
Necessary to produce clotting factors such as prothrombin and mostly produced by (symbiotic) bacteria in the colon.
Vitamin K
A stationary blood clot
A circulating blood clot
A cut that produces an even, steady flow of blood is likely from a ____.
A cut the produces spurts of blood is likely from an ______.
A cut that produces a slow seepage of blood is likely from ____________.
A torn, ragged cut will likely take ______ to clot due to inefficiency of the ________________ process.
Longer, Vasoconstriction
A laboratory test of donor and recipient blood cells to check for agglutination (clumping of cells)
Inherited antigens
Rh factor
Disregarding the Rh factor, the four blood types are...
A,B,AB,and O
Blood type A has the __ antigen on it RBC's and reacts against the __ antigen.
Blood type A can donate blood to types...
A and AB
Blood type B can donate blood to types...
B and AB
Blood type AB can donate blood to type...
Blood type O can donate blood to types...
A,B,AB, or O
The universal donor blood type (including the Rh factor) is...
Transparent fluid that circulates through body tissues to filter waste
Lymph is very similar to plasma except that lymph is lower in _______.
Lymphatic vessels are a __________ system
Closed ended
Lymphatic vessels are slightly ______ than blood capillaries.
Lymphatic vessels have a unique structure that allows interstitial fluid ___ but not ___.
Lymphatic vessels are predominately located near the ______ system and named according to their _____________.
Venous, Body location
Lymphatic fluid is returned to the venous blood through only two ducts which are...
1) Right Lymphatic Duct
2) Thoracic Duct
Small, encapsulated bundles of lymphatic tissue found in the neck, groin, and armpits.
Lymph Nodes
Small, unencapsulated bundles of lymphatic tissue
Lymph Nodules
The three major lymphatic organs are...
1) Tonsils
2) Spleen
3) Thymus
Protective ring of lymphatic tissue formed around the pharynx
Contains lymphoid tissue that filters blood, plays a role in blood formation in the fetus which is taken over by red bone marrow in the adult.
Destroys old red blood cells in the adult and forms bilirubin from the hemoglobin in RBC's
Contains T-Lymphocytes and B-Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Acts upon and matures T-Lymphocytes, or T-Cells, predominately before puberty occurs.
Blood flows through two circuits known as the...
1) Systemic Circuit
2) Pulmonary Circuit
A subdivision of systemic circulation that originates in the spleen and digestive organs and travels to the liver.
Hepatic Portal Circulation
A subdivision of systemic circulation that travels to the brain through the internal carotid artery and through the circle of Willis and requires 10% to 15% of total cardiac output.
Cerebral circulation
Cerebral circulation requires __% to __% of total cardiac output
10% to !5%
The internal carotid artery is one route of blood to the brain, another is the _______ artery.
Basilar artery
Blood Brain Barrier
An circulatory adaptation found in the brain that restricts capillary permeability.
Blood Brain Barrier
Circulation of the lymphatic system is dependent on movement of ________________, because it has no pumping system of its own
Skeletal muscles
Lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body drains into the _______________.
Right Lymphatic Duct
Lymph from all areas of the body other than the upper right quadrant darin into the _____________.
Thoracic duct
The right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct reenter the bloodstream at the _________________.
Left Subclavian Vein
The body's ability to recognize and destroy specific pathogens and to prevent infectious disease
over-reactive immune system response causes _________ and __________ disorders.
Allergies and autoimmune
The body's immune system includes...
1) Bone marrow
2) Lymphoid organs
3) Mononuclear phagocyte system (also called the reticuloendothelial system)
The mononuclear phagocytic system is also called...
The reticuloendothelial system
The "cornerstone" of the immune system are the ___________.
Lymphocytes differentiate into...
1) B-cells (B-lymphocytes)
2) T-cells (T-lymphocytes)
The immune system consists of...
Non-specific defense responses (phagocytosis) and Specific immune responses (humoral and cell-mediated immunity)
B-cells react in the presence of ________ to produce __________, this is a humoral immune response.
Antigens, Antibodies
T-cells proliferate at the direction of thymic hormones and attack infected cells, this is a ____________ immunity.
Cell mediated
B-cells are produced from __________.
Stem cells
When B-cells encounter antigens they _______and ________ rapidly to produce colonies of clones.
Enlarge and Multiply
Most B-cell clones become ______ cells which produce specific __________, or immunoglobulins, to provide _______ immunity.
Plasma, Antibodies, Humoral
Antibodies, or _____________ identify antigens and become ___________ which engulf and destroy the antigen.
Immunoglobulins, Macrophages
Some B-cells do not become plasma cells but remain in the body as ______ cells for immunologic immunity toward repeated exposure to a specific antigen.
A large protein molecule or foreign substance that enters the body and triggers an immune response
Antigen (Ag)
Foreign organisms, RBC's, tissue cells, and pollen can carry large protein molecules on their surface called...
Toxins, food, and some carbohydrates and lipids can carry large protein molecules on their surface called...
Each antigen stimulates the body to produce __________ specific to that particular antigen.
The body can produce about __________ different antibodies.
One million
The five basic groups of immunoglobulins are..
1) ImG
2) IgG
3) IgA
4) IgE
5) IgD
The most abundant immunoglobulin found in the blood is...
T-cell immunity is considered ______________ immunity.
Cell-mediated immunity
T-cells make up __% to __% of all lymphocytes
80% to 90%
T-Lymphocytes are produced in the red bone marrow but must mature in the ______ in children and other lymphoid organs in adults before they can perform their immune functions.
T-cells differentiate between self and not-self and fight ______, _______, and _________________.
Cancer,Viruses, Intracellular parasites
A type of lymphocyte other than the B and T cells are the ______________ cells, which are slightly larger and ready to function as soon as they are produced.
natural killer cells
Phagocytic macrophages and endocytic macrophages begin life as _________.