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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An accumulation of water in the tissues is known as...
An abnormal decrease of water in the tissues is referred to as...
The Kidneys are said to be _______________, because they lie behind the peritoneum. This makes them accessible for surgery through the back.
The right (Patient Right) kidney is slightly _____ in the abdomen because the liver takes up space on the body's right side.
The kidneys are heavily supplied with blood, which means they are extremely ________.
A pair of properly functioning kidneys will filter approximately __% of the body's total blood volume, on any given day.
Ten (10)
The kidneys precisely regulate the body's ___________ levels.
The kidneys act as a _____________ to prevent drastic or extreme changes in the blood pH levels. They do this by eliminating acids into the urine and excreting acids bound to chemical buffers.
Buffer system
Urine is approximately ____ times more acidic than blood because of the kidney's ability to excrete acids into the urine
one thousand (1000)
The kidney is divided into two parts, the outer portion called the ____________, and the inner portion called the _____________.
Renal cortex (outer), renal medulla (inner)
The functional units of the kidneys are located in the renal cortex and are called _______. They are the cells that FORM urine.
The ____________ acts as a collecting funnel to move urine from the kidneys into the ureters.
Renal pelvis
The cup like extensions which receive urine from the collecting tubules.
Calyces (singular: Calyx)
Approximately how many nephrons are located in each kidney?
One million
The _________ is a tiny cluster of capillaries located at one end of each nephron. It is partially enclosed by a funnel shaped structure called _____________.
Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule
The _________ has three layers of tissues which allow waste products to pass and restrict RBCs and blood proteins. The capillaries loop the remaining blood products back into the bloodstream
This receives the waste products from the glomerulus in diluted form
Bowman's capsule
The blood vessel leading into the glomerulus is much larger than the one looping back out and is called the...
Afferent arteriole
The blood vessel leading out of the glomerulus is much smaller than the one leading in and is called the...
Efferent arteriole
The convoluted tube exits Bowman's capsule and is divided into three sections, they are...
The proximal convoluted tube (PCT), the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tube (DCT).
The filtrate leaves the DCT and flows into the _________________.
Collecting tubule
The kidneys secrete two hormones which are...
Renin and Erythropoietin
The hormone secreted by the kidneys that influences blood pressure is...
The hormone secreted by the kidneys that influences red blood cells is...
Renin stimulates the formation of _____________, which converts to _____________ in the presence of special enzymes which raises blood pressure by causing the vessels to constrict.
Angiotensin 1, Angiotensin 2
Angiotensin 2 stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete ___________, which promotes sodium retention and water retention through osmosis.
Angiotensin 2 stimulates the neurohypophysis to release ______________ hormone which increases the reabsorbtion of water in the kidneys, thereby decreasing blood volume and lowering BP
Angiotensin 2 stimulates the thirst center of the ____________ to increase fluid intake and thereby increase blood volume
The entire process that the secretion of renin by the kidneys initiates is called...
Renin- angiotensin- aldosterone mechanism (RAA)
Erythropoietin stimulates the stem cells in the red bone marrow to increase formation of RBCs, this process is called...
Renal blood pressure is normally ______ than the rest of the body
Vitamin D is manufactured in the skin in a reaction to ___________ in sunlight. It is not usable until it has been converted by the liver and kidneys.
Ultraviolet rays
Vitamin D plays an important role in the absorption of _______ in the gastrointestinal tract
individuals with renal disease are subject to _______ imbalances due to the fact that the kidneys are no longer able to convert vitamin D to a usable form.
The capillaries most directly responsible for reabsorption of water, blood sugars, and salts back into the bloodstream.
Peritubular capillaries
The efferent arteriole leaves the glomerulus and branches to form the ___________ capillaries, which intertwine around the convoluted tube to provide for reabsorption.
The peritubular capillaries reabsorb water, salts and sugar through ______ transport, _______ transport, and _______ pressure.
Active, Passive, Osmotic