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4. What is the fundamental attribution error? Give an example
Overestimate personality as a cause of behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation. Behavior is caused by the situation, but you incorrectly assume it is caused by individual’s personality.

Ex: Gulliver student is criticized for entering library when closed librarian didn’t realize “library closed” sign was removed.
How might the fundamental attribution error affect a person’s beliefs about the causes of homelessness and poverty?
Blame homeless poor for being “lazy bums”, when some are schizophrenics released too early or grew up in bad neighborhoods
6. What is the actor-observer bias? Give an example
When someone else does something you don’t like, you blame their personality, when you do same thing, you attribute it to the situation
Ex: person in front of you drives very slowly bc he’s rude and selfish. You drive very slowly bc you’re looking for an address.
4. What is the fundamental attribution error? Give an example
Overestimate personality as a cause of behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation. Behavior is caused by the situation, but you incorrectly assume it is caused by individual’s personality.

Ex: Gulliver student is criticized for entering library when closed librarian didn’t realize “library closed” sign was removed.
How might the fundamental attribution error affect a person’s beliefs about the causes of homelessness and poverty?
Blame homeless poor for being “lazy bums”, when some are schizophrenics released too early or grew up in bad neighborhoods
6. What is the actor-observer bias? Give an example
When someone else does something you don’t like, you blame their personality, when you do same thing, you attribute it to the situation
Ex: person in front of you drives very slowly bc he’s rude and selfish. You drive very slowly bc you’re looking for an address.
4. What is the fundamental attribution error? Give an example
Overestimate personality as a cause of behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation. Behavior is caused by the situation, but you incorrectly assume it is caused by individual’s personality.

Ex: Gulliver student is criticized for entering library when closed librarian didn’t realize “library closed” sign was removed.
How might the fundamental attribution error affect a person’s beliefs about the causes of homelessness and poverty?
Blame homeless poor for being “lazy bums”, when some are schizophrenics released too early or grew up in bad neighborhoods
6. What is the actor-observer bias? Give an example
When someone else does something you don’t like, you blame their personality, when you do same thing, you attribute it to the situation
Ex: person in front of you drives very slowly bc he’s rude and selfish. You drive very slowly bc you’re looking for an address.
4. What is the fundamental attribution error? Give an example
Overestimate personality as a cause of behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation. Behavior is caused by the situation, but you incorrectly assume it is caused by individual’s personality.

Ex: Gulliver student is criticized for entering library when closed librarian didn’t realize “library closed” sign was removed.
How might the fundamental attribution error affect a person’s beliefs about the causes of homelessness and poverty?
Blame homeless poor for being “lazy bums”, when some are schizophrenics released too early or grew up in bad neighborhoods
6. What is the actor-observer bias? Give an example
When someone else does something you don’t like, you blame their personality, when you do same thing, you attribute it to the situation
Ex: person in front of you drives very slowly bc he’s rude and selfish. You drive very slowly bc you’re looking for an address.
. What is an attitude? Why is it important?
A feeling or belief that predisposes you to behave in a particular way
8. (a) What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon? How can it be used to change attitudes and behavior
ask for smtng that’s easy too agree to and then make the larger request you really want” “start small and build”.
(b) What is the door-in-the-face strategy? How can it be used to change attitudes and behavior?
Ask for much more than you want. When you drop to what u really want, it seems like much less.
Ex: you really want to borrow $10, so u 1st ask to 25 then down to 10.
(c) What are norms of reciprocity? How can they be used to change attitudes and behavior?
Bc someone does smtng for u, they expect you to do something for them in return.
Ex: charity sends you “free” mailing labels and wants a donation.
What is a role?
A person in a particular position is expected to behave. Ex: doctor is expected to be calm, knowledgable.
10. In Zimbardo’s prison experiment, how did acting a role change the students’ attitudes?
Stanford college student who volunteered for an experiment were assigned a role as either a prison guard or a prisoner. Guards became so sadistic, and prisoners so helpless and depressed. That was supposed to be a 2 week experiment was called off after 6 days.
While there is no excuse for brutality, how might the situation have influenced good soldiers to do
sadistic things to the Iraqis at Abu Ghirab prison?
Zimbardo believes that the American prison guards who commited brutal acts were good soldiers who were influenced by the situation to do bad things. You may not use the situation to excuse bad behavior, but we shld try to design situations so bad behavior is less likely
. (a) College students who have gone through an unpleasant fraternity or sorority initiation believe they love
that fraternity or sorority. How would cognitive dissonance theory explain this?
Cognivtive thinking dissonant to class, disagree.
Opposite thoughts clash: “I suffered to join” clashes w/ “it wasn’t worth it”. Painful.
Reduce: dissonance: “I love the sorority”. We tend to like what we suffered through and succeeded.
(b) When no weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq, why did people who used only that argument
to justify the war experience cognitive dissonance? How did many of them reduce dissonance?
“war is right” clashes w/ there were no WMDS (“war is wrong”)

reduce dissonance: find another reason to support the war (we’re bringing democracy to iraq).
14. What is conformity?
Changing one’s actions and/.or beliefs to agree w/ a group.
15. The famous study of conformity and length of lines was done by
Solomon Asch
task: say which of lines matches a standard. 5 actors give the same wrong answer. Will real participant do the same?
16. In this study on conformity, about ___% of the participants gave an answer that they knew
was wrong because 3 or more confederates previously gave the same wrong answer.
33%
17. Under what conditions is conformity more likely? (Consider how insecure/incompetent one feels, the size of
the group, the unanimity of the group.)
1.person feels insecure about task

2.at least 3 pple give the same wrong answer

3.everyone gives same wrong answer (group is undivided)
18. What are group norms?
Behaviors a group wants and expects from its members. Violating group norms will bring anger, antagonism.
19. The famous study on obedience that caused a furor about ethical standards in research was done by
Stanley milgram. Obedience= following perhaps (illegal) orderrs
20. In this study, the “teacher” was the participant and the “learner” was a confederate/actor. The
teacher was told that the study concerned the effects of punishment on learning. When the learner made a
mistake, the teacher pushed a switch on an impressive-looking box that supposedly gave the learner an
electric shock, starting with very mild and working up to XXX—DANGER. (The shocks were fake.)
65% of the participants went all the way to the “XXX” shock.
-----
21. After which of the following did participants keep “shocking” the “learner” because Milgram said when
they tried to stop, “The experiment requires that you continue” or “It is absolutely essential that you continue?”
(a) The “learner” cried, “Get me out of here! I refuse to go on!”
(b) The “learner” shrieked in agony after a high-level shock.
(c) After more higher-level shocks, the “learner” was silent as if he’d passed out.
(d) In a follow-up study, the “learner” said at the beginning that he had a “slight heart condition.”
(e) In a follow-up study, a participant saw another participant refuse to obey the experimenter.
all except e
22. Under what conditions is obedience more likely? (Consider the status of the person giving the orders, the
location of the study, how visible the victim is, what other participants are doing, starting small and proceeding
step by step [ the “foot in the door”] ).
2. location is prestigious

3. can’t see victim (easier to be artillery gunner. Klls hundreds)

4. cannot see someone else disobey

5. foot in the door phenomenon is used
23. Why were the French citizens of Le Chambon able to resist following orders during the Holocaust when so many
people in other cities did not
They were taught for decades by their religious leaders to resist illegal, immoral orders “contrary to the gospel:, so they refused to turn jews into Nazis
. What do conformity and obedience studies teach us about our potential to do the wrong thing?
? A bad situation can bring out the worst in any of us
25. What do conformity and obedience studies teach us about the need to resist pressure when it begins?
Resist right away. Once you start saying “yes” to smtng minor, you’re likely to keep saying “yes” and do smtng harmful.
26. What is social facilitation?
Perform better in presence of a group
27. Under what conditions does social facilitation occur? Under what conditions does the opposite occur?
Social facilitation occurs when you’re good at the task. The opposite occurs when you’re bad at the task (me in pole vaulting)
28. What is social loafing?
Exerting less effort when in a group bc you expect other group members to pik up the slack.
29. What is deindividuation?
Doing bad things when in a large group bc you feel anonymous, don’t have to live up to usual standards.
30. How might you use the opposite of deindividuation to stop undesirable group behavior (such as a lynch mob)?
Call pple in the mob by name. Makes them feel like an individual who is responsible for hisher behavior.
31. What is group polarization?
All members of a group agree about smtng. The more they discuss it, the more extreme they get bc they never hear opposing viewpoints.
32. What is groupthink? How did it help cause the Bay of Pigs defeat and the Challenger space shuttle disaster?
In group polarization, the whole group changes (becomes more extreme)
33. To overcome groupthink and help a group make good decisions, what should those with minority opinions
do? What should the group leader do
Minority should not be afraid to speak up. The leader shld encourage minority opinions.
34. What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? Give an example
. Bc u believe smtng is true. You unconsciously behave in ways that make it come true. Ex: teacher is told that avg students are learning impaired. W/o realizing, she challenges them less and accepts mediocre works( and vice versa)
To be self-fulfilling phrophecy, your actions must cause other pple to behavine in ways that make your belief come true.
35. What is a superordinate goal? Give an example.
Goal that can only be achieved if everyone in the group works toward that goal
36. What is prejudice? Have we made progress in overcoming prejudice during the last fifty years? Give some
examples of prejudice that exist today
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) belief/ feeling (attitude) toward a group and its members.
37. (a) What is a stereotype?
An incorrect belief that all members of a group are the same in some way. Prevents prejudiced person from perceiving the group accurately.
Ex: all blondes are dumb
(b) What is stereotype threat?
Performing below your level of ability bc you believe a negative stereotype about urself. Ex: girls are bad in math, she does poorly in test.
38. Explain how each of the following causes prejudice.
(a) Social inequality and the just-world phenomenon
some rich people feel guilty about their wealth. So they believe that the poor deserve to be poor and everyone gets what they deserve (the just-world phenomenom)
(b) Ingroups and outgroups:
whenever there are two (or more) groups. It is tempting to have the prejudice that “my group is beter than urs.
(c) Scapegoating
blame someone else (minorities) for one’s own weaknesses.
Ex: lazy, unqualified person blames affirmative action for not getting a job.
(d) Faulty thinking (stereotypes, vivid cases, the fundamental attribution error):
stereotypes, vivid cases when a majority person id smtng bad, fundamental atrribution error.
39. What is aggression?
Any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt someone or something.
. Explain the relationship between each of the following physiological factors and aggression.
(a) Heredity and genes:
: some pple inherit a tendency to be more aggressive, as shown by identical fraternal twin studies. Animals can be bred for aggressiveness.
(b) Neural systems in the brain:
certain areas of the brain (amygdala) cause aggression when stimulated. Ex: mild-mannered woman patient becomes hostile.
(c) Hormones and chemicals:
more testosterone increases aggression. More aggressive behavior also increases testosterone levels, alcohol makes aggressive pple more likely to behave aggressively, esp when frustrated.
41. Explain the relationship between each of the following psychological factors and aggression.
(a) Frustration (the frustration-aggression principle
being prevented from reaching a goal (frustration) creates anger, which causes some pple to be aggressive.
(b) Reinforcement:
: being positively reinforced for aggressive behavior increases aggressiveness. Ex: school bully who gets away w. stealing.
(c) Norms:
belonging to a group that expects and encourages aggressive behavior increases such behaviors. exL street gangs
(d) Observational learning, such as watching aggression on TV or aggressive parents:
watching aggressive behavior increases such behavior, esp when u see it pay off.
42. Are people likely to have better relationships with those who have opposite personalities or those
who are similar?
Relationships are better and long lasting when personalities are similar
43. What is the difference between passionate love and companionate love?
Passionate= intensely aroused state, being “in lust”


companionate love= deep affection, liking, respect. Does also include sexual drive.
44. Which is more likely to result in a long-lasting relationship, passionate or companionate love?
Companionate love. “My wife is my bff” Passionate long dsnt lst long
45. What is self-disclosure? Does it help or hurt a close relationship?
Revealing imp things about urself to someone else helps a close relationship. Good communication is essential to marriage.
46. What is the bystander effect?
? Pple are less likely to help someone in trouble (help out in a crisis), if other pple are present.
47. How did Darley and Latane study the bystander effect, and what were the results?
Participants were in cubicles connected only by intercoms. One confederate faked an epileptic seizure over intercom. Participants believes he/she only heard it: 80% of the time, participant believes 4 others heard it: help 30% of the time
48. How is the bystander effect explained in part by diffusion of responsibility?
People are less likely to help when others are present bc responsibility is spread out among others (is shared), so they feel someone elsw will do smtng.
49. Under what conditions is a bystander more likely to help someone in trouble? (Consider whether the bystander
is alone, what other people are doing, the bystander’s feelings.)
1. more likely to help if ure alone

2. more likely to help if you observe others helping

3. more likely to help if ur feeling good
1. What is a population?
All of the cases about which the researcher wants to draw a conclusion.
Ex: 1 will this pill cure all patients w/ OCD.
2. Can I create a situation where American adults are likely to follow an illegal order?
2. What is a sample?
A small # of cases, drawn from a specified pop, from which the researcher obtains data
ex: 1. Sample of 100 patients suffering from moderately severe OCD.
2. Sample of 85 adults from New Haven Who volunteer to participate in the study.
5. What is a random sample?
All elements (cases in the pop must have an equal chance of being chosen to be in the sample.
What is the mode? Why is the mode usually not used in psychological research?
Most frequently occurring score. A very rough measure that ignores all of the other scores.
The mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency
11. (a) What is the median?
Middle scores when scores are arranged from lowest to highest
6. Why are random samples desirable?
Random samples are more likely to provide an accurate estimate of the pop from which they were drawn.
7. Are random samples usually used in psychological research? Why not?
No.
1. to expensive and time consuming if you’re studying American adults, you wld have to fly pple in from all over USA.
2. U cant force pple to participate
8. What is the purpose of descriptive statistics?
? To summarize and describe large amounts of data (info)
9. If you score at the 72nd percentile, this means that
that you did better than 72% of the pple who took that test in the top 28%
10. What is the mean? How is it computed?
Avg of all the scores. Ad up all the scores and divide by # of scores.
What is the standard deviation of a set of scores? #
# that shows diff the scores are from each other, or how spread out the scpres are from their mean. Large SD= many scores far from the mean, diff from each other small SD= scores very similar, close to mean
15. Give an example using grades or sports to show that the standard deviation is important.
Both students have exactly a c avg, but they are diff.
What is the range? Why is the range usually not used in psychological research?
Largest score minus smallest score. A very rough measure that ignores most of the scores.
. What is a positively skewed distribution?
Many low scores, a few unusually high scores. Ex: Difficult test. Many 60s and 70s, few 90s.
What is a negatively skewed distribution?
Many high scores, few unusual low scores. Ex: easy test, many 80s and 90s, few 60s.
In a positively skewed distribution, which is larger, the mean or the median? Why?
Positively skewed= mean larger than medium. Mean is pulled up by the unusually large scores ( see 11b)
. In a negatively skewed distribution, which is larger, the mean or the median? Why?
Negatively skewed= median larger than mean. Mean is pulled down by the unusually low scores.
. If two variables are highly correlated (co-related), we can predict
Scores on one variable given scores on the other variable, w/ reasonably good accuracy. A variable is anything on which scores vary, such as grades from tests.
The smallest and largest values of the Pearson r correlation coefficient are
–1.00 and +1.00
Which would allow you to predict more accurately, a correlation of +.08 or one of -.62?
-.62 will predict more accurately. The larger the # (ignoring the sign), the more accurate the predictions.
What is the standard deviation of a set of scores? #
# that shows diff the scores are from each other, or how spread out the scpres are from their mean. Large SD= many scores far from the mean, diff from each other small SD= scores very similar, close to mean
15. Give an example using grades or sports to show that the standard deviation is important.
Both students have exactly a c avg, but they are diff.
What is the range? Why is the range usually not used in psychological research?
Largest score minus smallest score. A very rough measure that ignores most of the scores.
. What is a positively skewed distribution?
Many low scores, a few unusually high scores. Ex: Difficult test. Many 60s and 70s, few 90s.
What is a negatively skewed distribution?
Many high scores, few unusual low scores. Ex: easy test, many 80s and 90s, few 60s.
In a positively skewed distribution, which is larger, the mean or the median? Why?
Positively skewed= mean larger than medium. Mean is pulled up by the unusually large scores ( see 11b)
. In a negatively skewed distribution, which is larger, the mean or the median? Why?
Negatively skewed= median larger than mean. Mean is pulled down by the unusually low scores.
. If two variables are highly correlated (co-related), we can predict
Scores on one variable given scores on the other variable, w/ reasonably good accuracy. A variable is anything on which scores vary, such as grades from tests.
The smallest and largest values of the Pearson r correlation coefficient are
–1.00 and +1.00
Which would allow you to predict more accurately, a correlation of +.08 or one of -.62?
-.62 will predict more accurately. The larger the # (ignoring the sign), the more accurate the predictions.