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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscious) and for future aspirations
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' clues into their developing superegos.
defense mechanisms
the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile stage
reaction formation
defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
projective test
a personality test, such as Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner synamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach Inkblot Test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
personality inventory
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to access selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
empirically derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
readiness to perceive oneself favorably
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.