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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure
absolute threshold
intensity level at which one can detect a stimulus 50% of the time
the process of modifying a schema to account for new information; the process of the eye lens changing shape in order to focus on distant or near objects
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory and muscle movement
need for achievement
desire for accomplishment, mastery of people, ideas, things, desire for reaching a high standard
achievement test
a test that assesses what one has learned
a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established
action potential
the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon
activation synthesis
the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity, originating in the lower brain structures, especially the pons
adrenal gland
source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal
affective disorders
psychological disturbances of mood
need for affiliation
desire to associate with others, to be part of a group, to form close and intimate relationships
after image
an image that remains after a stimulus is removed, especially one in which the colors are reversed
drugs which mimic the activity of neurotransmitters
the most frequently used and abused CNS depressant in most cultures; its use affects mood, judgment, cognition
description of the action of neurons when firing
alpha waves
seen when an individual is in a relaxed, unfocused, yet still awake state
limbic system component associated with emotion, particularly fear and anger
anal stage
Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions
anorexia (nervosa)
an eating disorder in which one starves oneself even though significantly underweight
drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg, see in a boxer who suffers a severe blow to the head and loses memory for events after the blow
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him
antisocial personality disorder
psychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience
the middle of the three ossicles
impairment of language usually caused by damage to the left hemisphere
condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control
artificial intelligence
a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schema
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities, but rather are involved in thinking, memory and judgment
associative learning
learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together, such as my cat knowing that she will be fed when I get home from work
theory developed by Harlow; types include secure and insecure
a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; Asch demonstrated that this doesn't always match one's behavior
feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person
attribution theory
a way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation
a way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation
the area that sound waves pass through to reach the eardrum
style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules
autonomic nervous system
division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
availability heuristic
this cognitive shortcut features the idea that events which are vividly in memory seem to be more common
extension of the neuron which carries, via an action potential, information that will be sent on to other neurons, muscles or glands
stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds
basic research
scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base
applied research
scientific investigations intended to solve practical problems
perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states
belief perseverance
situation in which one's beliefs continue despite the fact that the ground for the beliefs have been discredited
big 5 personality factors
(OCEAN) openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
binocular cues
retinal disparity and convergence which enable people to determine depth using both eyes
perspective that stresses links between biology and behavior
bipolar cells
eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells
bipolar disorder
mood disorder in one experiences both manic and depressed episodes
blind spot
point in the retinal where the optic nerve leaves the retina so there are no rods or cones there
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory information
we have two, right and left, and some brain functions seem to centered in one or the other
oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells upon entering the skull; controls fundamental survival processes like heart rate and breathing
eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging
bystander effect
the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help
theory of emotion that says that a stimulus causes simultaneously physiological arousal and the subjective experience of an emotion
case study
scientific investigation in which a single subject is studied in great detail
CAT scan
a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography
a form of schizophrenia in which the patient has muscle immobility and does not move
release of aggressive energy through activity or fantasy
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and the spinal cord
brain structure that controls well-learned motor activities like riding a bike
erebral cortex
the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control
using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills
circadian rhythm
the daily biological rhythms that occur in a 24-hour period
this coiled structure in the inner ear is fluid-filled and in it the energy from sound waves stimulate hair cells
cognitive dissonance theory
this says that we will suffer discomfort and act to change the situation when our thoughts and actions seem to be inconsistent
cognitive therapy
treatment for psychological disorders that centers on changing self-defeating thinking
this adjective describes cultures in which the individual is less important than the group
concrete operations
Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age
concurrent validity
the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree
one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures
confounding variable
extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable
convergent thinking
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
the transparent outer covering of the eye
corpus callosum
the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres, enabling them to communicate
correlation coefficient
a positive one near 1.0 indicates two variable are positively related; a negative number indicates a negative relationship; zero indicates no relationship
type of study that measures a variable across several age groups at the same time
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
delta waves
largest brain waves, associated with deep, dreamless sleep
a branch off the cell body of a neuron that receives new information from other neurons
dispositional attribution
assuming that another's behavior is due to personality factors, not situational ones
dissociative identity disorder
also called multiple personality disorder
a neurotransmitter that is associated with Parkinson's disease (too little of it) and schizophrenia (too much of it)
initials of the American Psychiatric Association's book that lists diagnostic criteria for many psychological disorders
term that describes memory of sounds
initials of a method of representation of brain waves
Electra complex
counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females
endocrine system
the slow messenger system of the body; produces hormones that affect many bodily functions
describes a type of memory that includes specific events that one has personally experienced
external locus of control
this term describes what you have if your behaviors are driven mainly by outside forces
one of the Big 5, a personality trait orients one's interests toward the outside world and other people, rather than inward
term that describes motivations that drive behavior in order to gain rewards from outside forces
fixed interval
describes the schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker receives a paycheck every Friday
fixed ratio
describes a schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker is paid for a certain sum for each product produced
term describes a type of intelligence used to cope with novel situations and problems
term describes a type of intelligence which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems