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53 Cards in this Set

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Organize a microtubule network during mitosis to form the spindle and asters. Form the bases of cilia and flagella.
(cell center)
Region near the nucleus which houses the centrioles
Intracellular fluid; cellular material that surrounds the nucleus and is enclosed by the plasma membrane.
Golgi appartus
Packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes.
Used for degradation; sites of intracellular digestion.
Increases the surface area for absorption.
Site of ATP synthesis; powerhouse of the cell.
Nuclear membrane
(Nuclear envelope)
Bilayer that covers the nucleus; regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus.
Where ribosomes are assembled.
Control center where DNA is made.
A jelly-like fluid that encloses the nuclear envelope; contains dissolved salts, nutrients, and other essential solutes.
Pinocytotic vesicle
Brings in a small portion of the extracellular fluid or ions
Plasma membrane
Wall of the cell composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins.
Where protein is synthesized
Final piece of the electron transport chain.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Makes all the proteins secreted from cell and modifies it.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
1. Lipid metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and synthesis of the lipid components of lipoproteins (in liver cells)
2. Synthesis of steriod-based hormones.
3. Absorption, synthesis,and transport of fats (in intestinal cells)
4. Detoxification (in liver and kidneys)
5. breakdown of stored glycogen to form free glucose ( in liver cells esp.)
Stores substances.
Sperm cell

What is the function of the nucleus, flagellum, mitochondria, and acrosome?
To carry 23 chromosomes to the oocyte for reproduction.
How does the smooth muscle cell retain its shape?
By its cyto-skeletal proteins
How does the size of the neuron compare to the smooth muscle cell?
The neuron (nerve cell) is larger.
Nerve Cell body
central part of the neuron
Nerve cell processes
The projections from the nerve cell body
How long do you think a neuron can be?
Very long (can extend throughout the entire body).
Fluid that blood cells are suspended in.
Why is the red blood cell (erythorocyte) thin in the middle?
Best for oxygen attachment and detachment to hemoglobin.
What is the function of the red blood cell (erthrocyte)?
White blood cell (leucocyte)
Primary function is immunity; this cell is larger than the erythorocyte and is much less numerous. It has a nucleus and it's shape is circular.
What is the function of the ciliated cells?
Movement in a uniform way.
What do goblet cells contain?
Mucus to trap the debris the cilia is moving off.
completes the division of the cell into two identical daughter cells. Occurs as a contractile ring of actin microfilaments forms the cleavage furrow and pinches the cell apart.
The period from cell formation to cell division.
Subphases: G1 (growth), S (growth and DNA synthesis), and G2 (growth and final preparations for division).
G1 (Growth) Phase
The centrioles begin replicating and growth is occurring.
G0 Phase
Cells that permanently cease dividing.
S (growth and DNA synthesis) phase
DNA is replicated; also has growth and DNA synthesis.
G2 (growth and final preparations for division) phase
Enzymes and other proteins needed for division are synthesized and moved to their proper sites. Centriole replication is complete and the cell is now ready to divide.
The first stage of mitosis, consisting of coiling of the chromosomes accompanied by migration of the two daughter centrioles toward the poles of the cell, and nuclear membrane breakdown.
A small constricted region that holds the sister chromatids together.
Special protein structures at each chromosome's centromere.
Second stage of mitosis. Two centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell. The chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell.
Third phase of Mitosis I and II in which daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell. The chromosomes look V shaped as they move.
The final phase of mitosis; begins when migration of chromosomes to the poles of the cell has been completed and ends with the formation of two daughter nuclei.
What is the purpose of mitosis?
Cell division
Which cells of the body constantly undergo mitosis?
Epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and bone marrow.
Are there cells in the body that do not undergo mitosis?
Yes, neurons in the brain, cardiac muscles, and skeletal muscles.
When does DNA replication occur?
Interphase (S phase)
When does cleavage furrow occur?
In anaphase but to see it clearly it would be in telophase.
When do centrosomes move to opposite poles?
When do chromosomes move to opposite poles?
When does the nuclear membrane disappear?
When do chromosomes align on the equitorial plate?
Is interphase a phase of mitosis?
Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.