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237 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 layers of the GI tract?
Muscularis Externa
Serosa (Adventitia)
What are the layers of the mucosa?
Lamina Propria
Muscularis Mucosae
In the mucosa, what is the lamina propria made of?
Loose Areolar Connective tissue
in the mucosa, what is the muscularis mucosae made of?
smooth muscle
in the mucosa (in general), what is the epithelium made of?
stratified squamous epithelium
what is the submucosa composed of?
dense irregular connective tissue
(also is the location of major blood and lymphatic tissues)
within the 4 layers of the GI tract, which one houses lymphatic and blood vessels?
what is the muscularis externa composed of? (layers too)
Smooth muscle
inner circular muscle layer
outer longitudinal muscle layer
what is the serosa composed of?
loose connective tissue covered with a layer of simple squamous epithelium
the outer layer of the GI tract in the esophagus is called this
Nerve cell bodies in the muscularis externa are called
Myenteric Plexus
(Auerbach's Plexus)
Nerve cell bodies in the submucosa are called
Submucosal Plexus
(Meissner's Plexus)
Neurons plus plexuses of the GI tract comprise this
enteric nervous system
where is the myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus located?
muscularis externa
where is the submucosal (Meissner's) plexus located?
Glands in the submucosa of esophagus are called this
esophageal glands
broken into 3rds, explain the esophagus' muscularis externa with skeletal and smooth muscle
upper 1/3 is all skeletal
middle 1/3 is mix
lower 1/2 is smooth
what is the adventitia made up of?
fibrous connective tissue
in the stomach, the epithelium of the mucosa is made up of:
Simple columnar epithelial cells
epithelium of the mucosa extending down into the lamina propria are called
gatric pits
gastric pits turn into this
gastric glands
the two types of cells in the gastric gland of the stomach
parietal cells and chief cells
what do chief cells do?
produce pepsinogen
what do parietal cells do?
produce HCl and intrinsic factor
what do parietal cells look like?
Pink, large, Triangular
what do chief cells look like?
purple, small, rectangular
Folds of the stomach made up of submucosa are called
sometimes the stomach has a 3rd layer to the muscularis externa, it is called
oblique muscle layer (would be inner most layer)
the majority of digestion and absorption happens here
small intestine
what are the 3 sections of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
3 structural adaptations that increase mucosal surface area
plicae circulares
the outermost layer of the GI tract of the duodenum is called this
an extension of the lamina propria of the small intestine is called
each villus is covered by a layer of this
simple columnar epithelial cells
each villus contains these mucus secreting cells
goblet cells
these structures further increase the absorptive surface area of a villus
the core of each villus has a bed of capillaries and specialized lymphatic vessels called
what is a lacteal?
core of villus of small intestine that houses bed of capillaries and specialized lymphatic tissue
these are structures between adjacent villi
crypt of lieberkuhn (or intestinal glands)
type of cell at the base of a crypt of Lieberkuhn
Paneth cells
what do paneth cells do?
secrete lysozyme
what is lysozyme
an antibacterial enzyme secreted by paneth cells
glands in the duodenum located in the submucosa
brunner's glands
between the circular and longitudinal layers of the muscularis externa
Myenteric (auerbach's) plexus

(part of enteric nervous system)
what does the myenteric nerve plexus do?
control motility and secretion
what are ganglia?
collections of nerve cell bodies
the pancreas is made up of mostly this type of tissue
within the pancreas, these contain endocrine cells that produce the hormones insulin and glucagon
islets of langerhans
islets of langerhans produce these hormones
insulin and glucagon
the ileum has the absence of these glands that are in the duodenum
brunner's glands
these glands are in the submucosa of the ileum
peyer's patches
peyer's patches are located where?
submucosa of ileum
peyer's patches are
lymph nodules
why is there an increased concentration of lymphatic tissue toward the end of the small intestine?
large intestine contains large numbers of bacteria that must be prevented from entering the bloodstream
the jejunum lacks these
peyer's patches and brunner's glands
the epithelial layer of the mucosa in the colon
simple columnar epithelium
the liver slide contains
on the liver slide, in the middle of lobules
central vein
the central vein of the liver drains into the
hepatic vein
located on each point of a liver lobule
hepatic triad
the hepatic triad consists of
hepatic artery
hepatic portal vein
bile duct
in the hepatic triad, blood flows from _______________ through ________________ to _______________
hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein


central vein
bile is produced by __________ in the liver
these extend from the central vein of the liver slide
the way blood flows in the liver slide
from hepatic triad to central vein
the way bile flows in the liver slide
from hepatocytes to bile duct
the direction blood flows in liver slide
outside to inside
the direction bile flows in the liver slide
inside to outside
in the pancreas, exocrine products are _________ while endocrine products are _____________
the composition of urine provides information about
renal, liver, and pancreatic functions
what are the general characteristics of urine?
what does a large amount of foam in urine mean?
what does yellow foam in urine mean
what does specific weight of urine show
solute concentration in solution. weight of substance vs. weight of water
the normal range of specific gravity of urine
a low specific gravity occurs in patients with this
diabetes insipidus
what is diabetes insipidus
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is somehow lacked/not there
a high specific gravity could mean this
dehydration or liver disease
the normal range of pH of urine
under normal conditions does urine contain glucose?
no, or very very little
detectable amounts of glucose in urine is called this
what is glycosuria?
detectable amounts of glucose in urine is called this
major disease of glycosuira
diabetes mellitus
what is diabetes mellitus
pancreas produces too little insulin, body's cells can't absorb glucose, increase in glucose in urine
is protein normally found in urine?
trace levels only
urinary protein concentartion greater than normal is called
what is proteinuria
protein concentration greater than normal in urine
the presence of biliruben in urine is called
what is bilirubinuria
presence of bilirubin in urine
bacteria in large intestine converts bilirubin into
presence of keytone bodies in urine
what is keytonuria
presence of keytone bodies in urine
the abnormal production of keytone bodies is called
what is ketosis
the abnormal production of keytone bodies
what type of diabetes shows glucose and keytone bodies in urine
type 1 DM
what type of diabetes shows glucose only in urine
type 2 DM
what diabetes shows ketonuria
diabetes mellitus
the presence of an abnormal # of RBC's in urine
what is hematuria
abnormal # of RBC's in urine
bacteria in the urine is called this
what is bacteriuria
bacteria in the urine
what test do we use to test for bacteriuria
nitrite test
in the nitrite test, bacteria convert this into this
nitrate to nitrite
the presence of large #'s of WBC's in urine is called
what is pyuria
the presence of large #'s of WBC's
a deficiency of insulin is called this
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
a reduced action of insulin is called this
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
in type 1 DM you see this in urine
in type 2 DM you see this in urine
glucose only
a deficiency of ADH is called this
neurogenic diabetes insipidus
a reduced action of ADH is called this
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
the factor that determines diabetes insipidus is this
specific gravity low, lots of dilute urine
that factor that determines fasting is this
see keytones in urine
inflammation of nephrons in the kidney is calle dthis
the factor that determines glomerulonephritis
see protein and RBC's in urine
disease that results from excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is this
the factor that determines hyperparathyroidism
high pH
the factor that determines hepatitus (cirrhosis)
see bilirubin and urobilinogen in urine
The factor that determines bile duct obstruction
see just bilirubin in urine
what is dialysis
diffusion of solute through semi-permeable membrane
what is osmosis
diffusion of solvent (water) through semi-permeable membrane
what does vitamin C do to urine pH
decreases it
what is the overall function of the urinary system
to regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid compartment
what are the structural and functional units of the kidney
what is retroperitoneal mean?
being outside of the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity
being outside of the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is called this
the ureter leaves the kidney from this
what things enter/leave the hilus of the kidney
renal artery
renal vein
renal nerve
blood enters the kidney through this, and leaves through this
renal artery
renal vein
the renal nerve consists of these types of fibers
the outer area/inner area of kidney
the medullaof the kidney is subdivided into these
renal pyramids
outer covering of kidney is called
renal capsule
these produce urine in the kidneys
large cavity in the center of the kidney is called
renal pelvis
renal pelvis is divided into
major and minor calyces
renal pelvis drains urine into this
what are renal calculi
kidney stones
what is the function of the bladder
to store urine
the elimination of urine out of the body is done by this
the urethra
the opening of the urethra to the exterior is called this
external urethral orifice
part of the nephron located in the cortex
renal corpuscle
the renal corpuscle consists of these structures
bowman's capsule and glomerulus
the glomerulus is served by this, and drained by this
afferent arteriole
efferent arteriole
name the tubular sequence of a nephron
proximal tubule, descending limb of Henle, ascending limb of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct
capillaries in the cortex of the kidney are called
peritubular capillaries
capillaries in the medulla of the kidney are called
vasa recta
wall of the renal tubules consists of this epithelium
simple cuboidal
epithelium of bowman's capsule is this
simple squamous
this structure sits above the kidney
adrenal gland
the primary sex organs of the male and female
name for sex cells
male gametes (sex cells)
sac of skin that supports and protects testes
what is the scrotum
sac of skin that supports and protects testes
name for when testes fail to descend
what is cryptorchidism
when testes fail to descend
duct that carries sperm away from testes
spermatic cord
spermatic cord opens into pelvic cavity through this
inguinal canal
what is a hernia
some part of the abdominal cavity protrudes outside of the cavity
site for storage and final maturation of sperm
the epididymis is divided into these 3 parts
this conducts sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
ductus deferens (vas deferens)
the spermatic cord is made up of these structures
ductus deferens
blood vessels
lymphatic and nerves that supply the testis
cremaster muscle
connective tissue sheath
this extends from testis to inguinal canal
spermatic cord
terminal portion of ductus deferens that joins with ejaculatory duct
ampulla of ductus deferens
formed by the joining of the ampulla of ductus deferens to the duct of the seminal vesicle
ejaculatory duct
each ejaculatory duct penetrates this and empties into this
prostate gland
the urethra of a male is divided into 3 regions which are:
prostatic urethra
membranous urethra
penile urethra
the first region of the male urethra is called this
prostatic urethra
the second region of the male urethra is called
membranous urethra
the longest portion of the male urethra, which passes through penis and opens to external urethral orifice is called
penile urethra
what is semen composed of
sperm and accessory gland secretions
these are located on the posterior wall of the male urinary bladder
seminal vesicles
this discharges during ejaculation and contributes 30-40% to the volume of semen
prostate gland
glands located just inferior to the prostate gland, their mucus secretion coats lining of urethra to neutralize any acidic urine
Bulbourethral glands
external genetalia of male are
scrotum and penis
distal enlarged tip of penis
glans penis
layer of tissue that directly surrounds the urethra of male
corpus spongiosum
paired layer of erectile tissue in male
corpus cavernosa
an ovary is held in place by this
ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament, and mesovarium
receives an ovulated oocyte and transports the ovum from ovaries to the uterus
uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)
distal end of the uterine tube is called this
extends from infundibulum, finger like
what is PID
pelvic inflammatory disease
superior region of the uterus is called this
main region of the uterus is called this
inferior part of the uterus that opens up into the vagina
this passes through the cervix
cervical canal
hollow portion of the fundus and body of uterus
uterine canal
what is the uterine canal
hollow portion of the fundus and body of uterus
major layers of the uterine wall
name the structures of the external genitalia of the female (vulva)
mons pubis
labia majora
labia minora
large folds that cover and protect organ of the vulva in female
labia majora
beneath labia majora in female
labia minora
external openings of the urethra and vagina are called this
glands that lubricate the vestibule area in a female
vestibular glands
erectile tissue that is round and anterior to vestibule
female hormones produced by the ovary
porgesterone and estrogen
development of the ovum
development of the male germ cells
male sex hormone
testosterone is made by these cells
Leydig cells
dense fibrous CT layer that surrounds the testes
tunica albuginea
invagination of the tunica albuginea in male
lobules of the male testis are comprised of these
seminiferous tubules
site of sperm production
seminiferous tubules
sperm production is called this
sperm move from seminiferous tubules to this
rete testis
sperm move from rete testis to this
another name for sperm
spermatogoina (sperm) produce by this division
cells next in line after spermatogonia
primary spermatocyte
primary spermatocytes undergo this division
primary spermatocytes divide into
secondary spermatocytes
spermatids are associated with these cells
sertoli cells
transfoamtion of spermatids to sperm is called
where does oogenesis take place
4 layers of the ovary
germinal epithelium
tunica albuginea
primary oocyte is surrounded by this
follicular cells
what is the fluid filled space between oocyte and follicular cells
primordial follicles develop into
primary follicles
primary follicles develop into
secondary follicles
secondary follicles develop into
Graafian follicle
follicular cells lining the antrum
stratum granulosum
what cells secrete estrogen
granulosa cells
endocrine cells of the stratum granulosum
granulosa cells
cells of the stratum granulosum that surround the developing ovum form a layer called htis
corona radiata
between corona radiata and oocyte
zona pellucida
structure that supports the corona radiata and developing ovum
cumulus oophorus
2 layered structure outside the stratum granulosum
these are converted into estrogens
secretes androgens
theca interna
bloody scar following ovulation of follicle
corpus hemorrhagium
structure of follicular antrum filled with luteal cells
corpus luteum
non-functional corpus luteum
corpus albicans
hormone that stops egg growth