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97 Cards in this Set

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What are the 6 functions of the urinary system?

Regulation of blood volume and pressure
Regulation of plasma ion conc.
Conservation of Nutrients
Regulation of blood pH
Detox of blood
Urine production

How much fluid (L) does the kidney process every 24 hours?
180 L
Since the kidneys are so efficient, an individual usually doesn't have renal problems until ___% of their kidneys have deteriorated.
80%
What are the 3 blood organs?
Liver
Spleen
Kidneys
What elements are involved in the regulation of plasma ion concentration?
Sodium
Potassion
Chloride

Tip: SPiC
Where are the kidneys located? (ribs)
T12 - L3 retroperitoneal portion
What surrounds and holds up the kidneys?
Perinephric (perirenal) fat and other connective tissue
ptosis (nephroptosis)
kidney drops down into the pelvis when the patient stands up
What is the maximum amount of liquid (mL) the urinary bladder can hold?
1000 mL (= 1 L)

Others argue that it is 500 mL.
Why do women have a higher chance of UTI than men?
The female urethra is much shorter, making it so that bacteria has less distance to travel in order to cause an infection.
How long is the female urethra?

How long is the male urethra?
Female = 3-5 cm (1-2 in.)

Male = 20 cm (7-8 in.)
renal sinus
a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calyces, blood vessels, nerves and fat
hilum
dent in an organ for artery and vein to enter
At any given time of the day, ___% of your entire blood volume is in your kidneys.
25%
What are the functional units of the kidney?
nephrons
What are the 3 processes that occur in the nephron?
Filtration
Reabsorption
Secretion
filtration
material (solutes/H2O) moving into renal corpuscle through a filter; some things get through and some do not
reabsorption
material moving from a tubule (filtrate) to the peritubular capillary (blood)
secretion
material moving from outside a tubule to inside a tubule (in order to be secreted out as urine)
What is the only place filtration occurs in the nephron?
Renal corpuscle (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule)
What process(es) occurs in the PCT?
Reabsorption and some secretion
What process(es) occurs in the Loop of Henle?
Reabsorption
What process(es) occurs in the DCT/CD?
Reabsorption and some secretion (variable)
Why are the DCT and CD considered the same?
Because they perform the same function
About how many nephrons do you have in both kidneys?
2.5 million nephrons
cortical nephron
nephron located in the cortex of the kidney
juxtamedullary nephron
nephron that has parts of it go down into the medulla of the kidney
What % of nephrons are...
cortical?
juxtamedullary?
cortical = 85%
juxtamedullary = 15%
fenestra
small opening, sometimes covered with a membrane
vasa recta
pertitubular capillary that goes straight down along with nephron loop; aids in equalizing concentration between limbs
What are the 2 parts that make up the filtration membrane?
Podoctyes and filtration slits
Podocytes are cells of what structure?
Bowman's capsule, even though they can be found in the glomerulus capillary
podocytes
"foot cells"; feet are called pedicels; part of the filtration membrane
filtration slits
spaces between podocytes on the glomerulus capillary
What is the BP in the glomerulus capillary?

Is this high or low for a capillary?
50 mm Hg

This is a high number for a capillary.
What is the net filtration pressure in the glomerulus capillary?
10 mm Hg
What are the opposing forces in the glomerulus capillary that affect pressure?
50 mm Hg of BP

vs.

15 mm Hg of fluid pressure
25 mm Hg of osmotic pressure
Why does caffeine increase urination?
Caffeine increases BP
Which increases net filtration pressure

More filtration = More urination
What the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
125 mL/min
filtrate
anything that passes through a filter; in the nephron, it is essentially blood plasma w/ some chemical differences
___ follows ____, when it can.
H2O follows Na+, when it can.
leak channel
ion channel open all of the time
countertransport
exchange pump via a cell membrane protein, i.e. Na+/K+ pump
cotransport
when one product gets transported as a byproduct of another; "hitching a ride"
What process does Na+ reabsorption results from?

What process allows H2O to follow Na+?
Active transport pump

H2O follows by simple diffusion.
How are glucose, amino acids, and other organics reabsorbed?
Cotransport with Na+ and THEN facilitated diffusion into peritubular capillary
countercurrent
exchange between fluids moving in opposite directions
How do HCO3- and Cl- move through the PCT?
They follow Na+ (through diffusion) by the force of electrical gradient

Note: HCO3- and Cl- are negative and Na+ are positive.
How much of HCO3- gets reabsorbed in the PCT?
90%
How much of Cl- gets reabsorbed in the PCT?
50%
By the end of the PCT,
___% of Na+ is reabsorbed and
___% of H2O is reabsorbed.
65% of Na+ is reabsorbed and
65% of H2O is reabsorbed.
Describe the widths of the limbs of the loop of Henle.
Descending limb = Thin

Ascending limb = Thick
permeable
allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through
Identify what is permeable and not permeable in the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
Permeable to H2O
Not permeable to Na+
Identify what is permeable and not permeable in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Not permeable to H2O
Active transport (pumps out) Na+ and Cl-
Concentration in the loop of Henle gets super ____, until solutes _____ while in the __________.
Concentration in the loop of Henle gets super HIGH, until solutes LEAVE while in the ASCENDING LIMB.
Which limb of the loop of Henle makes tissue around it hypertonic (more concentrated)?
Ascending limb because Na+ and Cl- get transported out of it
What are the only kind of nephrons urea are permeable to?
Juxtamedullary nephrons
What 2 structures on the juxtamedullary nephron are urea permeable to?
Ascending limb of loop of Henle
Papillary duct
papillary duct
portion of the collecting duct that is all the way down by the renal papilla in juxtamedullary nephrons
Before filtrate enters the DCT/CD, approximately ___% of H2O and Na+ have been reabsorbed. Only ___% is left in the filtrate.
90% has been reabsorbed.

Only 10% is left in the filtrate.
In what part of the nephron does the "fine tuning" happen?
DCT/CD
Identify the 5 substances secreted by the PCT.
H+
NH4-
Creatinine
Some drugs
Some toxic chemicals (by countertransport with Na+)
Identify the 6 substances secreted by the DCT/CD.
H+
NH4-
Creatinine
Some drugs
Some toxic chemicals (by countertransport with Na+)

Occasionally K+
What is secreted by the loop of Henle?
Nothing
Identify the 4 nitrogenous wastes often found in urine.
Ammonium (NH4-)
Urea (CO(NH2)2)
Uric Acid (C5H4N4O3)
Creatinine (C3H3N3O)
The bladder is located behind the ______ _______ in both sexes.
pubic symphysis
What kind of epithelia does the bladder have?
Transitional epithelia
Similar to the stomach, what characteristic does the bladder have that allows it to expand?
Rugae
How many liter(s) can the bladder hold at once?
1 liter
detrusor muscle
smooth muscle of the urinary bladder made up of 2 longitudinal outer layers with a circular layer inbetween
What action occurs when the detrusor muscle contracts?
The bladder is compressed and urine is pushed into urethra
What are the 2 muscles of the urethra and what are their functions?

Which one is under voluntary control?

Which one is skeletal muscle?
Internal urethral sphincter

External urethral sphincter (under voluntary control; in genital area; skeletal muscle)
micturition
the process of disposing of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra
What triggers the micturition reflex?
200 mL of urine
What are the 5 steps to the micturition reflex?
1. Stretch receptors triggered
2. Afferent/efferent communication with CNS
3. Detrusor muscle contracts
4. Internal sphincter relaxes
5. External sphincter relaxes
Why does alcohol cause one to urinate?
Alcohol inhibits ADH

Nephrons become less permeable to water

Travels passes on through to the ureters and then the bladder
hemodialysis
dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
nephritis
an inflammation of the kidney
renal calculi (kidney stones)
solid mass of tiny crystals when that forms when urine contains too much of certain substances
glomerular nephritis
inflammation/damage of the glomeruli
renal failure
inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance;

decline in kidney function over time
diuretics
any substance (drug) that increase the flow of urine, thus ridding the body of extra water
incontinence
involuntary urination or defecation
Glucose in urine is indicative of what...
Diabetes
Ketones in urine is indicative of what...
Not enough carbohydrates in the diet.
Bilrubin in urine is indicative of what...
Liver disease
Too many WBCs in the urine is indicative of what...
UTI or other infection in the bladder or kidney.
What is the normal range of urine pH?
4-8
Where do we get urea from?
Deanimation of amino acids in liver
NH4-
ammonium
uric acid
a white tasteless odorless crystalline product of protein metabolism; found in the blood and urine
NH3
ammonia

Note: This is different from ammonium (NH4-)
What happens to the blood after it exits the efferent arteriole?
It goes to peritubular capillaries to reabsorb items that will be coming out of tubules.
What effect does Angiotensin II have on the pressure in the afferent arteriole?
NONE!

It only constricts the efferent arteriole.
What effect does Angiotensin II have on the pressure in the efferent arteriole?
Constriction in order to increase BP
glucocortoid
any of a group of steroid hormones, produced by the adrenal cortex, that are involved in metabolism and have anti-inflammatory properties