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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Blood moves fastest in which vessel? Why?

Artery; because it needs more pressure to get blood to the rest of the body

Blood moves slowest in which vessel? Why?

capillaries; becausethey have many more cross sections and the vessels are smaller

Considering corresponding artery and vein, which has a smaller diameter? why?

artery because they have thicker walls to carry blood under higher pressure

volume pulse

-the change in blood volume with each cardiac cycle


the height (of the tallest peak) of volume pulse recording


Speed(faster/slower) change in time(heart rate)

Dicrotic notch

-notch that forms a small second peak after the first major peak of the volume pulse recording(recorded with plethysmograph)

-caused by elastic recoil of the artery

notice the slope of the rising edge of the volume pulse is much steeper than the slope of the falling edge. Why?

rising edge corresponds to active contraction and falling edge to relaxation, which is passive

what changes in the finger are represented by the amplitude changes?

-blood flow

-heart rate

-blood pressure


elapsed time

time @ peak y - time @ peak x= elapsed time

heart rate

5 beats/elapsed time x 60 sec/min= HR (bpm)

(or # of beats per 15 seconds x 4)

Does the amplitude range increase or decrease right after exercise? why?

Decreases; less blood flow through fingers more diverted to muscles

What does the change in volume pulse amplitude and HR indicate about changes in the volume of blood flowing in the finger?

less blood to the finger more blood to the muscles

How does the amplitude of the volume pulse for the cooled compare with the recording at the normal room temperature?

Decreases in amplitude

no change in heart rate

Explain the difference in terms of the effects of cold on peripheral blood vessels

Vaso constriction in response to decreased temperature

What happens to the volume pulse amplitude when the finger is heated?

Increased due to vaso dilation

effects of smoking

-increases peripheral vasoconstriction


Where can you find your pulse?

radial artery, carotid artery, temporal artery, brachial artery, popliteal artery


instrument used to indirectly measure peripheral blood pressure

systolic pressure

pressure measured with each ejection of the left ventricle during systole

diastolic pressure

the lowest pressure measured in the walls of a muscular artery when the left ventricle is no longer compressed(during diastole)

what pressure do you pump the cuff to when taking BP?


-or to match systolic pressure

Where do you place the cuff and the stethoscope?

-cuff: 1 inch above the antecubital space(elbow)

-stethoscope: over brachial artery below the cuff

pulse pressure

-difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

-systolic-diastolic=pulse pressure


branching of a blood vessel

what affects change in blood flow?

temperature, body position, physical activity, and emotional state

peak x

any tall amplitude wave

peak y

count 5 amplitude waves from peak x

does amplitude increase or decrease when a person stands? why?

increases temporarily to get blood down to the feet and muscles in the leg

what is the heart rate after a person stands up?

increases slightly due to activity

what is the heart rate when the recording returns to normal?

drops back down t normal rate

does the amplitude range increase or decrease after exercise?


nicotine will attach to which receptors? where are they?


-postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons

what role does nicotine play in effects of tobacco smoke?

depends on whether it lands on parasympathetic or sympathetic postganglionic neurons

how is tobacco smoke able to cause a wide range of effects?

can activate both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system