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98 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Aspects of hunting/gathering

The beginning of agriculture. No crops specific to areas of land. Man just scavenged and hunted (mainly nomadic)

Importance of the Fertile Crescent

Refers to the areas of fertile soil stretching from the Niger River in Egypt to the Tigris and Euphrates in modern Iraq. The first place where a civilization with written language and agriculture.


Another word for commercial farming (for profit integrated not isolated) creating business diversity.

Agricultural Climate Impact

Drier (rice) land usually has livestock and ranching whereas moister climates have grain production (tropical) (fruit)

Agricultural Hearths

began in Southeast Asia which had a variety of plants suitable for transportation (roots, yam, banana). The first seed agriculture was in the Eastern Hemisphere (wheat, barely, grains etc) diffused to Europe using the rivers and seas. The Western Hemisphere: Mexico and Peru planted; squash, corn, beans and cotton

Colombien Exchange

the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries

Commercial Agriculture

for MDCs benefits to earn money

Crop Rotation

using different fields every year to avoid exhaustion of soil (milder climates)


the loss of water resulting in desertlike conditions where nothing can really grow

Double Cropping

yielding two years of crops in one year to get more profit

1st Agricultural Revolution

also known as the Neolithic Revolution, is the transformation of human societies from hunting and gathering to farming (in the Middle East)

2nd Agricultural Revolution

from 1700 to 1900 in developed countries used technology provided by the Industrial Revolution to increase production and distribution of products.

Green Revolution

the rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s (higher yielding seeds and more fertilizer) agriculture has surpassed population growth.


the planting of fruits, veggies flowers and trees form the base of Mediterranean farming

Intensive Substance Agriculture

people need to work harder to get profit benefits and crop yield (LDCs)


The range of distribution surrounding a city at which Milk will not spoil


another word for wet rice

Pastoral Nomadism

herding of animals based in North Africa the Middle East and Central Asia (LDCs)


A place where animals feed off of sheep pasture in alpine meadows in the summer and herded into valleys during the winter for pasture

Plantation Agriculture

export oriented government uses natural resources to make short term profits through deliberate planting generally in LDCs owned by Europeans and North Americans

Prime Agricultural Land

the most productive farmland (U.S. urban areas are killing this land)


commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area (in MDCs where vegetation is too sparse and soil is too poor) in the United States

Ridge Tillage

planting crops on small ridges that are formed by cultivation and harvest (the plant is planted in the same spot year after year)


a flooded field used to plant wet rice

Seed Agriculture

planting with the use of seeds of the priorly planted crop

Shifting Cultivation

when farmers slash and burn crops or farmers plant in one spot until the soils efficiency reduces

Slash-And-Burn Agriculture

farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris

Subsistence Agriculture

most seen in LDCs to survive on what they are planting

Sustainable Agriculture

preserving and enhancing environmental quality. Lower profit but the crops cost less (organic farming) sensitive land management, limited use of chemicals, and better integration of crops and livestock


nomadism (from one grazing ground to another)

Truck Farming

horticultural practice of growing one or more vegetable crops on a large scale for shipment to distant markets. It is usually less intensive and diversified than market gardening.

Vegative Planting

the reproduction of a crop through direct cloning (cutting pieces of the plant up)


Graduated terrace steps are commonly used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain. Terraced fields decrease both erosion and surface runoff, and may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation, such as rice. found throughout Asia.

Wet Rice

The practice of planting rice on dry land then moving the seedlings to a flooded area to promote growth


when threshed rice is placed in a tray and the lighter chaff is allowed to blow away in the wind

Carl Sauer

agricultural hearths and cultural landscapes

Von Thunens Model

Circular model (transportation and land cost) what is produced varies by distance from the central town (created the idea of location theory)

Koppen Climate Classification System

Different climates determine what kind of agricultural is done in an area (intensive/extensive dry livestock or rice/tropical fruits or grains)

Township and Range

the minimum number of people needed to support a service/the maximum distance people are willing to travel (based on a square grid)

Metes and Bounds

method of describing land, real property (in contrast to personal property) or real estate. The system has been used in England for many centuries, and is still used there in the definition of general boundaries

Linear Village

follows a stream or road

Cluster Village

intensive cultivation homes are clustered on road intersections

Round Village

to coral livestock (seemingly undeveloped)

Walled Village

Medieval Europe ---> the town is surrounded by a wall and on the outside is the farming land

Grid Village

individual farm houses that are widely spaced (North America)


relating to or derived from living matter. (less pesticide, less land and, lower production cost)

Fair Trade

trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries

Loss of Productive Farmland

America is converting farmland to development because Americans want to live in low-density suburbs, farmers are willing to sell their land and the market values this acreage higher as housing than farming


when similar services are located near each other and benefit from it


when similar services cluster together but there are too many of them to be productive

Break-of Bulk Point

a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible


mass production/manufacturing of a product in one place


(current) not as mass produced but is made around the globe leading to globalization

Industrial Revolution

originated in northern England and southern Scotland ---> the collective invention of hundreds of mechanical devices

Labor Intensive Industry

wages and other compensations contributes to higher expenses ( average labor 11% of all manufacturing costs in the U.S. So intensive would be higher)


also known in Spanish as maquilar meaning receiving payment for grinding or processing corn (a place where people such as Mexicans finish a product for cheaper prices outsourcing

New International Division of Labor

The term was coined by theorists seeking to explain the spatial shift of manufacturing industries from advanced capitalist countries to developing countries—an ongoing geographic reorganization of production, which finds its origins in ideas about a global division of labor

Cottage Industry

people who were paid for the number of pieces completed at home (spinning) women and children sorted, cleaned and spun wool at home

Right-to-Work State

According to the Legal Defense Foundation, right to work laws prohibit union security agreements, or agreements between employers and labor unions, that govern the extent to which an established union can require employees' membership, payment of union dues, or fees as a condition of employment, either before or after

Site Factor

result of the unique characteristics of a location (land, labor, and capital)

Situation Factor

transportation of materials to and from a factory (attempting to minimize the cost)


industrial jobs moved to cheaper places (changing to a service industry) resulting in high unemployment


cheap labor that is inside of the country/state


cheap labor that is outside of the country/state

Rust Belt vs Sun Belt

a term for the region of the United States from the Great Lakes to the upper Midwest States, referring to economic decline, population loss, and urban decay due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector, also known as deindustrialization.

Just in Time Delivery

inventory strategy companies employ to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the production process, thereby reducing inventory costs. This method requires producers to forecast demand accurately.

Trading Block

intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where regional barriers to trade, (tariffs and non-tariff barriers) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states

Bulk-Reducing Industry

the final product weighs less than what is put into it (Copper)

Bulk-Gaining Industry

the final product weighs more than what is put into it (cans or bottles)

Regional Disparity in Industry

unbalanced spatial structures in some region or in different regions. manifested in different conditions of life as well as in unequal economic and development potential.


the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise

Location Theory

where does a business go? (Economic based, political, and cultural)

Webers Model

transportation - raw materials cost the leastLabor - cheap, non-union, labor costs are lowAgglomeration - industrial clustering sharing services and faculties resulting in lower costDeaglomeration: too much agglomeration resulting in a loss of profit

Hotellings Model

location interdependence- you need multiple of one industry in one place (with similar products or similar demands)

Loschs Model Zone of Profitability

lower cost maximum profit -----> zone of profitability

Personal Service

a service based on the intellectual or manual efforts of an individual (as for salary or wages) rather than a salable product of his or her skills.

Customer Service

refers to the formulation, deformulation, technical consulting and testing of most consumer products, such as food, herbs, beverages, vitamins, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics

Business Service

work that supports a business but does not produce a tangible commodity. Information technology (IT) is an important business service

Producer Service

intermediate inputs to further production activities that are sold to other firms, although households are also important consumers in some cases. They typically have a high information content and often reflect a “contracting out” of support services that could be provided in-house

Transportation Service

means of conveyance or travel from one place to anotherb : public conveyance of passengers or goods especially as a commercial enterprise.

Information Service

Agency or department responsible for providing processed or published information on specific topics to an organization's internal users, its customers, or the general public.

Basic Industries

consist of smaller businesses that sell locally but are supported by non-basic industries

Non-Basic Industry

A distinction made in economic base analysis that describes a service business sector that offers its products primarily within a particular region. A non-basic industry provides support services to a basic industry

Regional Multiplier

attempt to estimate how much a one-time or sustained increase in economic activity in a particular region will be supplied by industries located in the region.

Complementarity Comparative Advantage

advising that each country has the ability to produce a good at lower cost, relative to other goods, compared to another country. Encourage Israeli food manufacturers to purchase their olives from Palestinian growers, their sun-dried tomatoes from Turkish growers, and their glass jars from Egyptian manufacturers

Market Area

a geographic zone containing the people who are likely to purchase a firm's goods or services


the minimum number of people necessary before a particular good or service can be provided in an area.

City State

a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state

CBD (Central Business Direct)

is the commercial centre. It contains the main shops, offices and financial institutions of the urban area. It is usually the most accessible (easy to get to) part of the city.

IDL (International Date Line)

an imaginary line of longitude on the Earth's surface located at about 180 degrees east (or west) of the Greenwich Meridian. ... Our interactive Time Zone Map shows the International Date Line.

Back Office Work

the portion of a company made up of administration and support personnel who are not client-facing. People who hold jobs in back office positions carry out functions such as settlements, clearances, record maintenance, regulatory compliance, accounting and IT services

Central Place Theory

a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in an urban system. The theory was created by the German geographer Walter Christaller, who asserted that settlements simply functioned as 'central places' providing services to surrounding areas

Gravity Model

a model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities. It is based on Newton's universal law of gravitation, which measured the attraction of two objects based off their mass and distance


describes the remarkable regularity in many phenomena, including the distribution of city sizes, the sizes of businesses, the sizes of particles (such as sand), the lengths of rivers, the frequencies of word usage, and wealth among individuals.

Primate City Rule

is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. A 'primate city distribution' has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size distribution

Suburbanization of Business

is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in formation of (sub)urban sprawl. ... Many residents of metropolitan regions work within the central urban area, and choose to live in satellite communities called suburbs and commute to work via automobile or mass transit


an area of land cleared for cultivation by slashing and burning vegetation.


System implemented in Quebec, Louisiana, Texas or areas of French influence, that divide the land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals