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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided into one area.

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of arable land (land suitable for agriculture)

Agricultural Density

The number of farmers per unit of farmland

Carrying Capacity

This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, water, habitat, and other life infastructure.

Population Distribution

The arrangment of something across the earths surface.

Major population concentrations?

South East Asia, North Africa and South West Asia (Middle East), South Asia, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa.

Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Population Explosion

A sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or world wide.

Population Pyramid

Population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph.


Population of various age categories in a population pyramid.

Baby Boom

People born in the U.S. between 1946 and 1964

Generation X

People born in the U.S. between 1965 and 1980

Generation Y

People born in the U.S. between 1980 and 2001

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

Number of live births per year per 1,000 people

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

Number of deaths per year per 1,000 people

Rate of Natural Increase (NIR)

The percentage by which a population grows in a year.

Total Fertility Rate

Average number of children born to woman during her childbearing years.

Infant Mortality Rate

The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age , compared with the total live births. (High in LDC and low in MDC)

Dependency Ratio

The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years.

Demographic Transition Model

The four step model that represents where countries are on transitions from a less developed to more developed country.

What are the 4 (5) step transition model stages?

1) Low Growth, Low Stationary. 2) High Growth, Early Expanding. 3) Moderate Growth, Late Expanding. 4) Low Growth, Low Stationary. 5) Negative Growth (not officially a stage)


Relationship between the number of people on earth, and availability of recources.


Refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population.

Zero Population Growth

When the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate equals zero.

Thomas Malthus

Food production in linear (1,2,3,4...) but human reproduction is geometric (1,2,4...) and we may be outrunning our supplies.


Human growth stimulates agricultural intensification.

Karl Marx

Lack of food is due to unequal distribution and human growth is not a problem.

Cornucopian Theory

Earth has an abundance of recources that can never be used up.


Takes into accoutant two factors that Malthus did not - population growth in LDC's and outstripping of recources other than food.


Into a region


Out of a region

Inter-Continental Movements

Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.

Intra-Continental Movements

Permanent from one region of a country across there own borders.

Inter-Regional Movements

Movement within a region, within a country.

Push Factors

Incentives for people to leave a place.

Pull Factors

Attractions that draw migrants to one place.

Ravenstein's Laws of Migration

1) Net Migration to a fraction of a gross migration.

2) The majority of migrants move a short distance.

3) Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose bigger cities.

4) Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.

5) Families are less likely to migrate than young adults

Voluntary Migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to a percieved oppurtunity.

Forced Migration

People removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government.

Friction of Distance

Spatial interactions will tend to take place over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decline with distance.

Distance Decay

The diminishing of importance and the eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. The farther away one group is from another, the less likely the twogroups are to interact.

Step Migration

Migration to a destinition that occurs in stages.

Chain Migration

Migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends and family to an existing community.

Counter (return) Migration

Approximately 75% of migrants will eventually return to there original home.

Channelized Migration

Repetitive pattern of migration not linked to family or ethnicity.

Intervening Oppurtunity

The presences of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractivness of sites farther away.

Cyclic Movement

Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.

Periodic Movement

Movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.


People that leave there homes because they are either forced out or enslaved.

Most Refugees-

1) Move without any tangible property than what they can carry.

2) Make their first steps on foot, wagon, bicycle, or boat.

3) Move without the official documents that accompany channeled migration.

a) Internal: Displaced within their own country.

b) International: Crossed an international boundary during dislocation seeking asylum in a different country.

Population Policies

Expansive, Restrictive, and Eugenic


Encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.


Reduce the rate of natural increase (family planning).


Favor one racial sector of others.