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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Urban sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing build-up area
Why have factories moved to the suburbs?
1. More space
2. Cheaper land
3. Truck access
Centric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
Sector model
Model of the internal structures of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
European city demographics
Cities built on or around old monumental building and more in suburbs
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people lviing in urban settlements
(Market area)

The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
(Of a service)

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Gravity model
A model that holds the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Rank size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Market center
Location/distribution influenced by site (land, labor, and capitol) and situation (transportation, $) factors
Great lakes manufacturing
1. Steel
2. Hub of US transportation network
3. Automobile manufacturing
CBDs services
*Retail= services with high threshold, a high range, or serve downtown workers

*Business= offices cluster in center for accessibility
Where have US auto plants located and why?
In suburbs for maximum distribution with low transportation costs
Central business district
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Bulk-gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the outputs
Where is the US steel industry located and why? (mid 1800s)
Pittsburgh- ore and coal mines
Where is the US steel industry located and why? (late 1800s)
Ohio- iron in Mesabi range
Where is the US steel industry located and why? (1900s)
East and West coats- transportation
Where is the US steel industry located and why? (Recent)
Mostly closed (S. Lake Michigan)
Significant industrial assets of the western great lakes region?
Good transportation and it has iron ore and coal
Industrial revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Where did the IR begin?
England, S. Scotland, in part because the region during the late 18th century contained a remarkable concentration of innovative engineers and mechanics
Why has ranching declined in the US southwest?
The land can't support the animals once we changed to fixed-location ranching. They needed water and crops to eat. Also, transporting was difficult because they couldn't travel long distances
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Pastoral nomads
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Von Thunen model
Why do unique types of agriculture develop?
They developed to suit the climate, limited knowledge, and culture
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Indicators of development
-Economic structure
-Worker productivity
-Access to raw materials
-Availability of consumer goods
Value added
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
Why are MDCs more productive?
They have acess to more machines, tools, and equipment
Tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communication, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Primary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Per capita GDP is a good indicator of what?
The economic development of a country
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The value of the total output of goods and services produces in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year)
What does development refer to?
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Frontier vs. Boundary
Frontier is a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control

Boundary is an invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
A territory that is legally ties to a sovereignty rather than completely independent
The Fertile Crescent
An area between the Persian gulf/Mediterranean sea
-Center for communication in ancient times
Culturally defined group of people with a shared past and common future who relate to a territory and government
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Ethnic identity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Triangular slave trade system
A practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ship s transported slaves from African to Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separates different races into different geographic areas
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Loyalty and devotion to a particular rationality
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Hierarchical religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
Emphasized mystical and magical aspects of life rather than the importance of public service
*Banned by communists
-Follow traditions
-Fulfilling obligations
-Treat others with sympathy and respect
-Monotheistic (1 God)
-Muhammed (messenger of God)
-Gives to charity
-Fasting during month of Ramadan
-Muslims pray facing Mecca 5 times daily
-Makes pilgrimage to Mecca
Christian denomination
Universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
(Of a religion)

A large and fundamental division within a religion