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229 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
pH less than 7 is
Acidic
pH over 7 is
Alkaline
Blood pH
7.35 - 7.45

Organs that regulate pH
Lungs, Kidneys, and Buffers
Purpose of glucose
Most important energy source. A monosaccharide, or simple sugar, that servers as the principal fuel for the cells of the body. Used by cells as an immediate source of energy. Stored as fat and burned as fuel at a later time.
Where are triglycerides derived?
Are ester derived from glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Where is cholesterol derived?
Steroid, lipid- is derived from compacted layers of Schwann cell membrane
Smallest pathogen
Virus
Largest pathogen


Bacteria
Epidemiology
The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease in a population
Resistance
The ability to ward off disease
Susceptibility
A lack of resistance
Reservoir of infection
A continual source of infection. Can be living organisms such as humans and other animals. Can be a non-living vector. Contaminated soil and water also serve as inanimate reservoirs.
Fomite
Non-living vector
Normal Flora
A group of microorganisms that colonize a host without causing diease
Sterilization
A process that destroys all living organisms
Vector
A carrier of pathogens from host to host. The mosquito is the animal vector carrying the plasmodium (malaria) to humans. A contaminated syringe is a non-living vector.
Antibiotic
Chemical used to treat bacterial infections. A broad - spectrum one destroys many different types of bacteria, whereas a narrow-spectrum one only destroys a few types.
Disease
A failure of the body to function normally
Nosocomial
Hospital acquired infection that is most often transmitted from patient to patient by direct contact. Today, they are caused by health care professionals not washing their hands.
Purpose of mucus membranes
Sheets of tissue that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and support organs.
4 major types of tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscular.
Also called the epithelium
Epithelial tissue
Most abundant tissue
Connective tissue
3 types of muscular tissue
Skeletal, Smooth (visceral), and Cardiac.
Types of epithelial membranes
Cutaneous, Mucous, Serous.
Types of serous membranes
Pleurae, Pericardium, Peritoneum
Types of connective tissue
Synovial, Periosteum, Perichondrium, Meninges, Fascia
Lines joint cavities, secretes synovial fluid
Synovial
Covers bones; contains the blood vessels that supply the bone
Periosteum
Covers cartilage; contains capillaries that nourish the cartilage
Perichondrium
Covers the brain and spinal cord
Meninges
Appears throughout the body
Fascia
Classification of epithelial membranes
Cutaneous, mucous, and serous.
Classification of connective tissues
Synovial, periosteum, perichondrium, meninges, fascia
Functions of the skin
Serves as a mechanical barrier, protects internal structures, participates in the immune system, acts as a gland for vitamin D synthesis, performs excretory function, performs sensory role, helps regulate body temperature.
Integumentary glands that secrete earwax
Ceruminous glands
Cerumen
Ear wax
Cerumen is found in
The external auditory canal of the ear
Mottled pigmentation
Discolored areas of the skin
Sallowness
A yellow discoloration of the skin
Telangiectasis
The dilation of small blood vessels under the skin
Elastosis
The destruction pf the elastic and collagen tissue (causing lines, wrinkles, and sagging skin)
Most common type of skin cancer for fair skin
Basal cell
Most common type of skin cancer for dark skin
Squamous cell
Cancer that is rare in dark skin
Melanoma
Types of cancer
Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma
Exposure to the sun causes
Precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, benign tumors, fine and coarse wrinkles, freckles, mottled pigmentation, sallowness, telangiectasis, elastosis, common skin cancer.
Skin color is determined by
Genes, physiology, and sometimes pathology
Dark pigment
Melanin
Melanocyte malfunctions
Albinism, vitiligo, moles
Blushing
Blood vessel dilation
Pallor
Blood vessel constriction
Cyanosis
Poor oxygenation ; bluish tint
Jaundice
Bilirubin deposition ; yellowing
Bronzing
Melanin overproduction
Ecchymosis
Black and blue bruising
Nonmelanomas
Neoplasms that arise from the epithelial tissue and most commonly occurs on sun exposed areas of the body
Malignant melanoma
Malignant neoplasm of the melanocytes
Pustule
A small pus-containing elevation of the skin that is seen in conditions such as acne and impetigo
A pimple is a
Small pustule
Macule
Flat lesion, also called a blemish. Include freckles, flat mole (nevus), vitiligo, measles, smallpox, and petechial
Papule
Elevated lesion that looks like a solid blister.
Vesicle
A blister- round lesion filled with serous fluid.
Examples of papules
Insect bites, some skin cancers, wart.
Examples of vesicles
Herpes zozster (shingles) contact dermatitis
Wheal
A hive / urticarial: multiple hives, itching skin eruption
Ulcer
Crater-like lesion formed by the loss of the epidermis and the dermis
Types of joints
Immovable, slightly movable, freely movable, hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, saddle, gliding, condyloid.
Immovable joints
Cranial bones
Slightly movable joints
Intervertebral disc; symphysis pubis
Hinge joints
Elbows, knees, fingers.
Ball-and-socket joints
Shoulders, hips
Pivot joints
Atlas-axis joint (side to side movement) ; head saying "no"
Saddle joints
Carpometacarpal , thumb
Gliding joints
Wrist (carpals)
Condyloid joints
Knuckles, temporal bone, and mandible (jaw)
Tendons
Cordlike structures that attach muscles to bones
Ligaments
Cross joints and attach bone to bone
Flexion
Bending of joints; decrease the angle.
Extension
Straightening a joint to increase angle
Adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body
Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
Planter flexion
Bending the foot down, as in toe dancing
Dorsiflexion
Bending the foot up toward the leg
Pronation
Turning the palm of the hand so that it faces down
Circumduction
Combination movement, as in circling the arm
Supination
Turning the hand so that the palm faces upward
Structures of the brain
Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Brain Stem
Parts of the cerebrum
Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
Parts of the diencephalon
Thalamus, hypothalamus
Parts of the brain stem
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
Frontal Lobe "Executive"
Motor area, personality, behavior, emotional expression, intellectual functions, memory storage
Parietal lobe
Somatosensory area (especially skin, muscle, taste, speech, reading
Occipital lobe
Vision, vision-related reflexes and function
Temporal lobe
Hearing (auditory area), smell (olfactory), taste, memory storage, part of speech area
Thalamus
Relay structure and processing center for most sensory information going to the cerebrum
Hypothalamus
Autonomic nervous system; regulation of temperature, water balance, sex, thirst, appetite, some emotions (pleasure and fear) regulates the pituitary gland and controls endocrine function
Midbrain
Relays information (sensory and motor) associated with visual and auditory reflex
Pons
Relays information (sensory and motor) plays a role in respirations
Medulla oblongata
Vital function (regulation of heart rate, blood flow, blood pressure, respiratory centers), reflex center for coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
Cerebellum
Smooth out and coordinates voluntary muscle activity; helps in maintaining balance and muscle tone
How many pairs of cranial nerves?
12
CN I
Olfactory nerve (smell)
CN II
Optic nerve (sight)
CN III
Oculomotor (most movements of eyeball, eyelid, and pupil size)
CN IV
Trochlear (movement of eyeball)
CN V
Trigeminal (chewing; sensations in face, scalp, cornea, teeth)
CN VI
Abducens (eyeball movement)
CN VII
Facial nerve (facial expression, salivation, taste, tearing, and blinking)
CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear (hearing, balance)
CN IX
Glossopharyngeal (swallowing, secretion of saliva; taste)
CN X
Vagus ("wanderer nerve") innervates many thoracic and abdominal organs and voice box; sensory arm of baroreceptor reflex
CN XI
Accessory (head movement and shrugging shoulders, swallowing)
CN XII
Hypoglossal (speech and swallowing)
12 cranial nerves
Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocohlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
Types of neurons
Afferent, Efferent, and Interneuron
Sensory neurons. Carries information from the periphery toward the CNS
Afferent
Motor neurons. Carries information from the CNS toward the periphery
Efferent
Only found in the CNS. Forms connections between sensory and motor neurons. Play a role in thinking, learning, and memory
Interneuron
Parts of the Central Nervous System
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Function of the eye
Sense of sight (vision).
The organ of hearing
Ear
Master gland of the ear
Anterior pituitary - controlled by the hypothalamus
Structure of the ear
How the ear hears
Sound waves enter through the external part causing vibrations. Contains the receptors for balance.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Acts primarily on the upper collection duct of the nephron unit.
Aldosterone
Red Blood Cells (RBC) count for men
4.5 - 6.0 million/uL
Red Blood Cells (RBC) count for women
4.2 - 5.4 million/uL
Hemoglobin (Hgb) count for men
13.5 - 17.5 g/100 mL
Hemoglobin (Hgb) count for women
12 - 16 g/100 mL
Hematocrit (Hct) count for men
40% - 50%
Hematocrit (Hct) count for women
37% - 47%
White Blood Cells (WBC) count for men and women
5,000 - 10,000/uL
Platelet (thrombocytes) count for men and women
150,000 - 450,000/uL
Both A & B antigens on RBC. Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in plasma
Type AB blood
Neither A nor B antigen on RBC. Both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in plasma
Type O blood
What is a cardiac cycle?
A sequence of events that occurs during one heartbeat. It is the contractions (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the chambers of the heart
Relaxation of the myocardium; blood fills a chamber during it
Diastole
Contraction of the heart muscle; contractions of the heart muscle ___ pumps blood out of a chamber
Systole
Carries blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart. Transports unoxygenated blood to the lungs, where oxygen is located and carbon dioxide is unloaded
Pulmonary circulation
The largest circulation. Provides the blood supply to the rest of the body. Carries oxygen and other nutrients to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and other waste.
Systemic circulation
Purpose of valves
Only in veins
What do one way valves do?
Keeps the blood flowing toward the heart
Artery
Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Arteriole
Small artery that is composed largely of smooth muscle, found between the large artery and the capillaries; also called resistance vessel
Capillary
Smallest and most numerous of the blood vessels; site of exchange of nutrients and waste between blood and tissue; also called exchange vessels
Venule
Tiny veins that connect capillaries to a larger vein
Vein
Blood vessel that takes blood toward the heart
Aorta
Largest artery that conducts blood from the left ventricle of the heart
Capacitance vessels
Refers to the veins and specifically to their ability to store blood
Conductance vessels
Blood vessels that are primarily concerned with carrying blood to smaller blood vessels; functional name for arteries
Splanchnic circulation
Blood supply of the abdominal organs
Vena cava
Large veins that take unoxygenated blood to the right atrium; superior and inferior
3 main functions of lymphatic organs
Returns interstitial fluid to the blood, absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins, helps the body defend itself against infection.
35% right lymphatic duct, 65% thoracic duct
Lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic vessels drain most of the body
Tonsil
Filter tissue fluid contaminated by pathogens that enter the body through the nose, mouth, or both.
Often the target of tonsillectomy
Palatine tonsils
Assists development of immune system before puberty, secreted thymosins, produces T cells
Thymus glands
Red pulp: venous sinuses filled with blood and phagocytes. White pulp: contains lymphocyes. Stores RBCs and platelets. Removes old RBCs and platelets.
Spleen
Lower respiratory system
Lower trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, pleural membrane, muscles of respiration
Upper respiratory system
Nose and nasal passages, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe)
Conduct air to bronchioles
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Smooth muscle determines diameter, regulates air flow to the alveoli
Alveoli
Small grapelike structures; air sacs that exchange O2 and CO2 with blood in pulmonary circulation
How many lobes does the right lung have?
3; superior, middle, inferior.
How many lobes does the left lung have?
2; superior, inferior
Parietal pleura
Outer serous membrane
Visceral pleura
Lines inside of lungs
Intrapleuralspace
Located between parietal and visceral pleurae
2 factors that oppose lung expansion
Elastic recoil & surface tension
Eupnea
Normal, quiet breathing
Apnea
Temporary cessation of breathing
Dyspnea
Difficult or labored breathing
Tachypnea
Rapid breathing
Orthopnea
Difficulty in breathing relieved by sitting up
Hyperventilation
Increase in rate and depth
Hypoventilation
Decrease in rate and depth
Hypoxemia
Abnormally low concentration of O2 in the blood
Hypercapnia
Abnormally high concentration of CO2 in the blood
Hypocapnia
Abnormally low concentration of CO2 in the blood
Purpose for surfactant
Keeps the alveoli from collapsing
Functional unit of the urinary system
Nephron
Normal constituents of urine
Water, urea, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, phosphates, uric acid, organic salts, and the pigment urobilin
Abnormal constituents of urine
Keytone bodies, protein, bacteria, blood, glucose, pus, and certain crystals
Parts of a nephron
Tubular component (renal tubules) and a vascular component (blood vessels)
Fluid balance
Intake and output should be the same
Fluid regulation
The control of the amount of fluids a body needs to survive; essential to homeostasis
First line of defense in the regulation of pH
Buffer system
Intracellular compartment
63% of water is located here. It includes all the water located in all the cells of the body
Extracellular compartment
Includes the fluid located outside all the cells and represents about 37% of the total body water. Includes the water located between cells, called interstitial fluid, water within the blood vessels (plasma), and water within lymphatic vessels (lymph)
Pustule
Vesicle
Papule
Macule
Ulcer
Wheal
Hydrochloric acid pH
0
Lemon juice pH
2
Stomach contents pH
1-4
Vinegar, wine pH
3
Black coffee pH
5
Pure H2O pH
7
Intestinal contents pH
8-10
Soap solutions pH
10
Household ammonia pH
12
Sodium hydroxide pH
14
Has a bitter taste and is slippery like soap
Base
An electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an anion
Acid
The ability to perform work
Energy
How pathogens are spread
Droplet infection, direct contact, contaminated food, contaminated water, body fluids, vectors
Major bones of the body
Gland that is both exocrine and endocrine
Pancreas
Most common blood type
O
Least common blood type
AB
Blood types
A, B, AB, O
Digestion from mouth to anus
External genitalia of the male
Penis, scrotum
Accessory or supportive sex glands of the male
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
Reproductive ducts of the male
Ductus (vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
Essential organs of the male
Gonads or testes
Male reproductive fluid
Semen
Essential organs of the female
Gonads or ovaries
Reproductive ducts of the female
Uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Accessory or supportive sex glands of the female
Bartholin’s glands and breasts
External genitalia of the female
Vulva
During a 28-day menstrual cycle, ovulation would be most likely to occur on day ___ of the cycle
14
Shortly before menstruation....
Blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease