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215 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cranial meninges
A.
line ventricles of the brain
B.
filter blood
C.
are hollow spaces within the brain
D.
cover the brain
D
The most superior part of the brain is the
A.
medulla oblongata
B.
cerebellum
C.
thalamus
D.
cerebrum
D
The blood-brain barrier is created by tight junction seals around brain capillaries formed by the
A.
oligodendrocytes
B.
astrocytes
C.
CNS neurons
D.
pia mater
B
Cerebrospinal fluid
A.
is produced by the arachnoid villi
B.
enters the central subarachnoid space through the cerebral aqueduct
C.
is produced by the choroid plexuses
D.
All of these
C
The pyramids are located in the
A.
medulla oblongata
B.
thalamus
C.
hypothalamus
D.
cerebellum
B
The cerebral aqueduct
A.
drains venous blood into the superior sagittal sinus
B.
connects the second and third ventricles
C.
passes through the midbrain
D.
drains CSF from the ventricles into the subarachnoid space
C
The pneumotaxic and apneustic centers are located in the
A.
pons
B.
medulla
C.
thalamus
D.
midbrain
A
The principal motor fibers that decussate in the medulla originate in the
A.
thalamus
B.
cerebellum
C.
pons
D.
cerebral cortex
D
The region in the brain stem responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep is the
A.
thalamus
B.
pyramids
C.
reticular activating system
D.
limbic system
C
The arbor vitae is the white matter of the
A.
cerebrum
B.
medulla oblongata
C.
cerebellum
D.
pons
C
Which of the following is true concerning the transverse fissure?
A.
It separates the cerebral hemispheres and contains the corpus callosum
B.
It separates the cerebral hemispheres and contains the falx cerebri
C.
It separates the cerebrum and cerebellum and contains the falx cerebelli
D.
It separates the cerebrum and cerebellum and contains the tentorium cerebelli
D
The part of the brain that functions to coordinate voluntary muscular movements and detect discrepancies when movements are not being carried out correctly is the
A.
cerebrum
B.
brain stem
C.
cerebellum
D.
corpus callosum
C
The region of the brain that helps to control equilibrium is the
A.
cerebellum
B.
thalamus
C.
hypothalamus
D.
pons
A
The principle relay station for sensory impulses as they pass to the cerebral cortex is the
A.
corpus callosum
B.
hypothalamus
C.
infundibulum
D.
thalamus
D
The hypothalamus is located in the
A.
frontal cerebral cortex
B.
cerebellum
C.
optic chiasma
D.
diencephalon
D
The corpus callosum is a bridge of __ tracts connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
A.
commissural
B.
projection
C.
association
D.
only motor
A
Projection fibers connect
A.
the cerebrum to lower parts of the CNS
B.
regions of the same hemisphere of the cerebral cortex
C.
one side of the cerebral cortex to the opposite side
D.
the pons to the cerebellum
A
The basal ganglia control
A.
emotions
B.
large automatic movements of the skeletal muscles
C.
reflex movements associated with sight and hearing
D.
heart rate and rhythmicity of breathing
B
The part of the limbic system that functions with the cerebrum in the process of memory is the
A.
olfactory bulbs
B.
mammillary bodies
C.
hippocampus
D.
amygdala
C
If a patient is having difficulty seeing, you might expect problems with the
A.
occipital cortex
B.
cerebellum
C.
limbic system
D.
pons
A
The primary motor area of the brain is in the
A.
temporal cortex
B.
frontal cortex
C.
medulla oblongata
D.
pons
B
If Broca's area of the cerebrum is damaged, the result is loss of
A.
eyesight
B.
muscular control of the eyes
C.
speech
D.
emotions
C
The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the __ lobe
A.
frontal
B.
parietal
C.
temporal
D.
occipital
B
A region located on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe receives impulses relating to
A.
taste
B.
vision
C.
smell
D.
hearing
C
The primary auditory area is located in the
A.
frontal lobe
B.
parietal lobe
C.
occipital lobe
D.
temporal lobe
D
The region of the cerebral cortex that allows you to determine the exact shape and texture of an object without looking at it is the
A.
primary motor area
B.
somatosensory association area
C.
premotor area
D.
visual association area
B
Which electroencephalogram brain waves indicate emotional stress?
A.
alpha waves
B.
beta waves
C.
theta waves
D.
delta waves
C
Which of the following indicates the correct order in which cranial nerves originate from the base of the brain?
A.
optic, olfactory, trigeminal, trochlear, ophthalmic
B.
olfactory, ophthalmic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal
C.
olfactory, optic, trochlear, trigeminal, facial
D.
olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal
D
Loss of the sense of smell could result from injury to which cranial nerve?
A.
I
B.
II
C.
III
D.
XI
A
A cranial nerve containing only sensory fibers is the
A.
trochlear nerve
B.
facial nerve
C.
optic nerve
D.
vagus nerve
C
The oculomotor nerve originates in the
A.
midbrain
B.
pons
C.
medulla oblongata
D.
spinal cord
A
The ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves are branches of the
A.
abducens nerve
B.
trigeminal nerve
C.
trochlear nerve
D.
facial nerve
B
A portion of cranial nerve ____ actually originates from the spinal cord
A.
XI (accessory nerve)
B.
X (vagus nerve)
C.
IX (glossopharyngeal)
D.
XII (hypoglossal
A
The ____ ____ is the “seat of our intelligence”– it’s because of neurons in the cortex that we are able to read, write, speak, remember, and plan our life.
cerebral cortex
What areas are numbered regions of cortex that have been “mapped” to specific cognitive functions?
Brodmann’s
The prominent longitudinal fissure separates the cerebrum into right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Study Pic
Brodmann’s areas are numbered regions of cortex that have been “mapped” to specific cognitive functions. What are the three main areas?
Sensory areas, Motor areas, and Association areas.
The four major parts of the brain are the?
Brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum.
The brain is protected by?
Cranial bones and Cranial Meninges
The cranial meninges are continuous with the spinal meninges. From superficial to deep they are?
Dura Mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
What is the function of CSF in the spinal cord?
Provides mechanical protection, chemical protection, and circulation of nutrients.
What is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space and central canal?
Cerebrospinal Fluid.
Most of the Cerebrospinal Fluid is absorbed into blood across the arachnoid villi of the?
Superior Sagittal Sinus.
The medulla contains nuclei associated with what cranial nerves?
VIII-XII
The Pons contains nuclei associated with what cranial nerves?
V-VIII
The Midbrain contains nuclei associated with what cranial nerves?
III-IV
What occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity? It also consists of two lateral hemispheres and a medial, constricted vermis.
The Cerebellum
What smooth’s and coordinates the contractions of skeletal muscles? It also maintains posture and balance.
The Cerebellum
What surrounds the third ventricle and consist of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus?
The Diencephalon
What is the largest part of the brain? Its cortex contains gyri, fissures, and sulci.
The Cerebrum.
The Cerebrum is divided into what four hemispheres?
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, and Occipital.
What are several groups of nuclei in each cerebral hemisphere? They help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, and regulate muscle tone.
The Basal Nuclei.
Name the three groups of Basal Nuclei.
Caudate, putamen, and pallidus.
What receives nerve impulses for, and consciously perceives the somatic sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle, temperature (coldness and warmth), pain, and proprioception (joint and muscle position)?
The primary somatosensory area
Where is the primary somatosensory area located?
(areas 1, 2, and 3 – located in the postcentral gyrus of each parietal lobe)
What controls voluntary contractions of specific muscles or groups of muscles.
The primary motor area
Where is the The primary motor area located
Area 4 – located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe.
Where is the Broca’s are located?
Area 44 and 45
What area controls the production of speech?
The Broca’s area
Where is the primary auditory area located?
In Area 41 and 42
Where is the primary visual area located?
In Area 17
What is so special about the frontal lobe?
The frontal lobe is concerned with personality, intellect, complex learning abilities, judgment, reasoning conscience, intuition and development of abstract ideas. The frontal lobe defines who we are.
What together with the medulla, areas help control breathing (inhalation and exhalation)?
pons
What lies directly above the medulla and anterior to the cerebellum (2.5 cm). It acts as a bridge connecting the spinal cord with the brain and
parts of the brain with
each other.
The pons
There are two main groups of respiratory neurons in the medulla:  the dorsal respiratory group and the ventral respiratory group Together, these two groups are known as the?
medullary respiratory center.
The dorsal respiratory group is believed to be the main site responsible for?
respiratory rhythm
The ventral respiratory group of neurons is not solely responsible for?
rhythmic breathing
Vital functional centers regulated by the medulla include?
cardiovascular center respiratory rhythmicity center vomiting, coughing, and sneezing centers
CN I is the
olfactory nerve, this is the sense of?
smell
CN II is the optic nerve the sense of?
sight
CN III, IV, and VI innervate the extraocular muscles that allow us to?
move our eyes.
CN V is the trigeminal nerve (the major sensory nerve of the?
face
CN VII has 5 large somatic branches which innervate the muscle of ?
facial expression. It also carries some
taste sensations
What is the vagus nerve? (“the wanderer”), which carries most of the parasympathetic motor efferents to the organs of the thorax and abdomen.
CN X
What nerve supplies somatic motor innervation to the Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid muscles.
CN XI is the spinal accessory nerve
What is a very large nerve (a lot of resources) to be devoted solely to the tongue – it takes a lot more coordination than you might guess to chew, talk, and swallow without injuring our tongue.
CN XII is the glossopharyngeal nerve.
What is sometimes called the “emotional brain” because it plays a primary role in promoting a range of emotions, including pleasure, pain, docility, affection, fear, and anger?
The limbic system
Which neural path consists of two motor neurons?
A. autonomic
B. somatic motor
C. somatic sensory
D. cerebral only
A
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse in
A. sympathetic trunk and prevertebral ganglia
B. sympathetic trunk and terminal ganglia
C. prevertebral and terminal ganglia
D. intramural and collateral ganglia
A
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the sympathetic trunk ganglia by way of the
A. intervertebral foramina
B. gray rami
C. white rami
D. sympathetic trunk
B
80% of the total craniosacral outflow is carried by
A. vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
B. vagus nerve (X)
C. sciatic nerve
D. hypoglossal nerve (XII)
B
Parasympathetic fibers associated with cranial nerve VII synapse in which terminal ganglia before continuing to their visceral effectors?
A. ciliary and prevertebral
B. submandibular and pterygopalatine
C. intramural and collateral
D. paravertebral
B
Which of the following statements concerning the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is true?
A. fibers arise from the brain and sacral portion of the cord
B. preganglionic neurons synapse at or near the organ to be innervated
C. most presynaptic fibers are very short
D. fibers are associated with cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X
C
All postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the _____ ganglion go to structures in the head
A. superior cervical
B. ciliary
C. pterygopalatine
D. thoracic
A
Nerve fibers of the sympathetic division originate in the
A. brain and sacral region of the spinal cord
B. thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord
C. brain and thoracic region of the spinal cord
D. sacral and lumbar region of the spinal cord
B
Which autonomic ganglion is associated with the superior mesenteric artery?
A. celiac
B. lesser splanchnic
C. hypogastric
D. superior mesenteric
D
The cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the
A. terminal ganglia
B. visceral organs
C. spinal cord
D. sympathetic trunk ganglia
C
Which of the following are parasympathetic nerves?
A. greater splanchnic nerves
B. lesser splanchnic nerves
C. lumbar splanchnic nerves
D. pelvic splanchnic nerves
D
Preganglionic fibers to the ciliary ganglion are associated with cranial nerve
A. III
B. IV
C. VII
D. IX
A
The white rami contain
A. postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
B. preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons
D. preganglionic sympathetic neurons
D
_____________are long; _____________are short.
A. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers; sympathetic postganglionic fibers
B. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic postganglionic fibers
C. Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic postganglionic fibers
D. Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers; sympathetic postganglionic fibers
C
Which of the following is a drug classified as a non-specific beta blocker that reduces heart rate and force of contraction?
A. acetylcholinesterase
B. muscarine
C. propranolol
D. epinephrine
C
Adrenergic neurons release
A. monoamine oxidase
B. norepinephrine
C. acetylcholine
D. GABA
B
Which of the following is true of adrenergic fibers?
A. They use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter
B. They include all preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
C. They have both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors on effectors
D. They are stimulated during the fight-or-flight response
D
The adrenergic receptors for norepinephrine and epinephrine are
A. nicotinic and muscarinic
B. beta and nicotinic
C. alpha and beta
D. nicotinic and beta
C
What is the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity called?
A. synergism
B. antagonism
C. autonomic tone
D. sympathetic tone
C
Which of the following does not describe the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
A. resting division
B. energy conservation division
C. digestive division
D. fight or flight division
C
What part of the nervous system is the main control and integrative center of the autonomic nervous system?
A. cerebrum
B. hypothalamus
C. medulla oblongata
D. thalamus
B
Which part of the autonomic reflex pathway differs from the somatic reflex pathway?
A. receptor
B. integration center
C. motor pathway
D. effector
C
Like children on a teeter-totter, the ____ ____ “fight or flight” response is balanced against the “rest and relax”
(or rest and digest)
activities of the
____ ____?
sympathetic divisions
parasympathetic
division.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons exit the spinal cord only between levels T1-L2 hence the name?
thoracolumbar division
sympathetic ganglia extend in the vicinity of the cord from the cervical to the sacral region hence the name?
Crainosacral
Synapses at which ACh is used are termed?
cholinergic.
Synapses at which norepinephrine or epinephrine are used are termed?
adrenergic.
What are the two subtypes of cholinergic receptors?
nicotinic receptors (found in the ganglia) and muscarinic receptors (found in the synapses with the effector organs).
Describe the Physiology of the ANS?
Sympathetic stimulation leads to secretion of norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, an increase in the rate and strength of the heartbeat, constriction of blood vessels of non-essential organs, dilation of vessels of essential organs (skeletal muscle and the cerebral cortex), an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, hepatic conversion of glycogen to glucose, and decrease in GI activity.
SLUDD is as an acronym used to describe the responses of the parasympathetic nervous system. What does this stand for?
Salivation (increased)
Lacrimation (increased)
Urination (increased)
Digestion (increased)
Defecation (increased)
… and 3 decreases (in the rate and force of the heart beat, airway size and rate of breathing, and pupil size)
The postganglionic axons typically terminate in several different visceral effectors, making the effects of sympathetic stimulation a?
widespread massive response
Presynaptic parasympathetic neurons usually synapse with only 4–5 postsynaptic neurons, all of which supply a single visceral effector. Parasympathetic stimulation leads to a?
narrow, focused action on specific organs
Study chart on pg 584 for differences between the ANS and the SNS.
Study chart on pg 584 for differences between the ANS and the SNS.
Study
Study
Information about the temperature of the air around you would be sent to the brain by
A.
proprioceptors
B.
exteroceptors
C.
nociceptors
D.
mechanoreceptors
C
Which of the following is an example of rapid adaptation?
A.
Loss of ability to smell the baking cake after a few minutes
B.
After too many stimuli, neurons start to fire uncontrollably
C.
Loss of ability to feel a toothache after 1 – 2 hours
D.
Hitting the snooze button when the alarm clock rings
A
Muscle spindles and tendon organs are examples of
A.
thermoreceptors
B.
nociceptors
C.
proprioceptors
D.
exteroceptors
C
The degree of muscle stretch is detected by
A.
tendon organs
B.
muscle spindles
C.
Meissner's corpuscles
D.
free nerve endings
B
Somatic pain that arises from stimulation of skin receptors is classified as _____ pain.
A.
referred
B.
superficial somatic
C.
visceral
D.
deep somatic
B
Proprioceptors are located in the
A.
skin
B.
blood vessels
C.
muscles and tendons
D.
eye
C
Type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors are located
A.
in the epidermis
B.
in the superficial region of the dermis
C.
around hair follicles
D.
deep in the dermis and in deeper tissues of the body
D
The organ that has the broadest area of referred pain is the
A.
lung
B.
gallbladder
C.
kidney
D.
ovar
C
The type of pain felt from a puncture of a needle is called
A.
fast pain
B.
chronic pain
C.
referred pain
D.
type A pain
B
Novocaine provides short-term relief of pain by blocking conduction of the nerve impulses at the level of the
A.
axons of the first-order neurons
B.
medulla where the nerve fibers decussate
C.
thalamus
D.
free nerve ending of the pain receptors
A
What is the function of the Pacinian corpuscle?
A.
touch
B.
pressure
C.
pain
D.
heat
B
What is the function of the root hair plexus?
A.
touch
B.
pressure
C.
pain
D.
hea
A
Sensory nerve fibers in the posterior column decussate at the level of the
A.
pons
B.
hypothalamus
C.
medulla oblongata
D.
arbor vitae
C
Third-order neurons of somatic sensory pathway project
A.
along peripheral nerves to the spinal cord or brain
B.
from the spinal cord to the thalamus
C.
from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex
D.
from the medulla to the cerebellum
C
Damage to the lateral spinothalamic tract could result in a lack of sensation of
A.
referred pain
B.
proprioception
C.
weight discrimination
D.
pain and temperature
D
The part of the body represented by the largest area of the somatosensory cortex is the
A.
forearm
B.
thigh
C.
lips
D.
back
C
Sensations of tickle and itch are conveyed from one side of the body to the opposite side of the cerebral hemisphere along the
A.
anterior spinothalamic tract
B.
lateral spinothalamic tract
C.
anterior spinocerebellar tract
D.
anterior corticospinal tract
A
Which tracts carry information about actual performance of muscles of the trunk and lower limbs to the cerebellum?
A.
posterior columns
B.
spinocerebellar tracts
C.
lateral spinothalamic tracts
D.
pyramidal tracts
B
Which of the following is true concerning voluntary motor impulses?
A.
They are carried from the motor cortex to skeletal muscle by somatic afferent neurons
B.
Impulses originate in the somatosensory cortex
C.
They reach their effectors by way of the pyramidal pathways
D.
They are blocked by such drugs as Novocaine and morphine
C
The major control region for initiation of voluntary movements of the body is the
A.
somatosensory area
B.
premotor area
C.
primary motor area
D.
basal ganglia
C
The corticobulbar tracts convey nerve impulses that control movements of the
A.
stomach and intestine
B.
heart
C.
arms and legs
D.
head and neck
D
The final common path to the skeletal muscles from both the pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways is the
A.
lower motor neurons
B.
upper motor neurons
C.
association neurons
D.
decussation neurons
A
What part of the brain receives information about planned activity, compares this with actual movements, and supplies corrective signals to other parts of the brain?
A.
cerebral cortex
B.
thalamus
C.
cerebellum
D.
medulla oblongata
C
Circadian rhythm refers to
A.
characteristic music from the tropical island of Circadia
B.
a 24 hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness
C.
the change in blood concentration of molecules due to homeostatic activities
D.
the rapidity with which certain stimuli cause generation of action potentials
C
The reinforcement of memory due to the frequent retrieval of a piece of information is called
A.
short-term memory
B.
long-term memory
C.
plasticity of memory
D.
memory consolidation
D
Cerebral palsy is caused by
A.
a bacterial disease that damages the spinal cord
B.
gradual deterioration of the brain cells as a person gets older
C.
damage to the motor areas of the brain during fetal life, birth, or infancy
D.
a hemisection of the spinal cord in the cervical region
C
Alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles of the upper extremities, resulting in an uncontrollable shaking of the hands is a characteristic of:
A.
spinal cord injury
B.
cerebral palsy
C.
Parkinson disease
D.
multiple sclerosis
C
What receptors provide sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, and hearing and equilibrium. They also monitor the stretching of blood vessels and internal organs?
Mechanoreceptors
Which receptors, detect changes in temperature?
Thermoreceptors
Which recptors respond to painful stimuli?
Nociceptors
Which receptors are activated by photons of light?
Photoreceptors,
Which recptors detect chemicals in the mouth (taste), nose (smell) and body fluids?
Chemoreceptors,
Which receptors detect the osmotic pressure of body fluids?
Osmoreceptors,
What receptors are located at or near the external surface of the body and respond to external stimuli?
Exteroceptors,
What recptors are located in blood vessels, organs, and muscles and produce impulses which usually are not consciously perceived?
Interoceptors (visceroceptors),
What receptors are located in muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear. They provide information about body position and movement of joints?
Proprioceptors,
Nociceptors are chemoreceptive ___ ___ ___activated by tissue damage from intense thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli - they’re found in every tissue of the body except the brain
free nerve
endings
What along with Ruffini corpuscles in the capsules of joints respond to pressure?
Free nerve endings
Receptors for other somatic and visceral sensations, such as pressure, viberation, and some touch sensations, are?
Encapsulated nerve endings
Pain that is felt at a site remote from the place of orgin is called?
Referred Pain
Muscle spindles are the ____ in skeletal muscles that monitor changes in the muscle length and participate in stretch reflexes
proprioceptors
What pain results from stimulation of nociceptors in visceral organs?
Visceral
Pain that arises from stimulation of receptors in the skin is called superficial ____ pain; stimulation of receptors in skeletal muscles, joints, tendons, and fascia causes deep ____ pain
somatic
Only ___ ___ ___ provide output from the CNS to skeletal muscle fibers. For this reason, they are also called the final common pathway.
Lower Motor Neurons
lower motor
neurons (LMNs) descend from the CNS to innervate what?
innervate skeletal muscle
Any motor neuron that is not directly
responsible for stimulating target
muscles is called an?
upper motor neuron (UMN)
What connects the brain to
the appropriate level in the spinal cord?
Upper Motor Neuron
When a generator potential is large enough to reach threshold, it triggers one or more nerve impulses in the axon of a?
first-order sensory neuron.
What neurons conduct ascending impulses from the brain stem where their
axons decussate (cross over to the opposite side) before
ascending to the thalamus
Second-order neurons
What neurons conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cortex on the same side?
Third-order neurons
precentral gyrus equals?
Somatomotor
Postcentral Gyrus equals?
Somatosensory cortex
Explain how conscious perception actively brings serveral sensations ot though online at the same time.
Integration occurs at many places along pathways in the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, basal nuclei,
and cerebral cortex. Sensations result in
and evoke a conscious perception
or subconscious awareness that
changes have occurred in the
external or internal environment.
The olfactory receptors are examples of
A.
thermoreceptors
B.
mechanoreceptors
C.
chemoreceptors
D.
proprioceptor
C
Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
A.
sweet
B.
salty
C.
pungent
D.
bitter
C
Sensory stimulation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is conducted by the
A.
hypoglossal nerve
B.
glossopharyngeal nerve
C.
vagus nerve
D.
trigeminal nerve
B
Circumvallate papillae are located on the
A.
posterior region of the tongue
B.
sides of the tongue
C.
tip of the tongue
D.
soft palate and pharynx
A
Bipolar neurons associated with sensory receptors are found in the
A.
retina
B.
taste buds
C.
inner ear
D.
finger tip
A
Which of the following is part of the vascular tunic of the eye?
A.
cornea
B.
retina
C.
choroid
D.
sclera
C
When entering a dark room on a sunny day, it takes some time to be able to see because
A.
it takes time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin
B.
the rods of the eye work only in bright light, and it takes time for the cones to develop an action potential in dim light
C.
the iris dilates very slowly after being subjected to bright light
D.
the optic nerve fatigues in bright light, and takes time to recover
A
The anterior cavity contains
A.
the vitreous body
B.
aqueous humor
C.
endolymph
D.
perilymph
B
The point of greatest visual acuity is the
A.
optic disk
B.
utricle
C.
optic chiasm
D.
central fovea
D
Intraocular pressure is primarily due to the
A.
aqueous humor
B.
iris
C.
lens
D.
vitreous body
A
As they extend from the retina to the brain, nerve fibers
A.
from the nasal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
B.
from the temporal half of each retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
C.
from both nasal and temporal portions of the retina cross to reach the opposite visual cortex
D.
travel straight from each retina to the visual cortex, without crossing or synapsing
A
Which cranial nerve carries visual impulses to the brain?
A.
I
B.
II
C.
IV
D.
X
B
Aqueous humor drains from the anterior chamber into the
A.
vitreous body
B.
lacrimal duct
C.
ciliary processes
D.
canal of Schlemm
D
As a result of an injury, a person cannot see at all with the left eye, but has no trouble seeing with the right eye. The injury has probably severed the
A.
optic chiasm
B.
left optic tract
C.
left optic nerve
D.
right optic nerve
D
The blind spot is the area where
A.
there are more rods than cones
B.
there are more cones than rods
C.
the optic nerve exits the eye
D.
the iris attaches to the cornea
C
A sty is caused by
A.
infection of the sebaceous ciliary glands
B.
paralyzing the levator palpebrae superioris muscle
C.
damage to the ceruminous glands
D.
infection of the Meibomian glands
A
Which of the following conditions is not related to lens pathology?
A.
glaucoma
B.
hypermetropia
C.
cataract
D.
astigmatism
A
In humans, both eyes focus on only one set of objects. This is called
A.
constriction
B.
refraction
C.
binocular vision
D.
LASIK
C
The fibrous tunic is composed of the
A.
sclera and cornea
B.
choroids, ciliary body, and iris
C.
retina
D.
optic nerve
A
The white of the eye, which gives shape to the eyeball, makes it more rigid, and protects its inner parts is the
A.
cornea
B.
sclera
C.
choroid
D.
conjunctiva
B
Most of the refraction of light entering the eye occurs at the
A.
conjunctiva
B.
cornea
C.
lens
D.
retina
B
During accommodation for near vision
A.
the cornea becomes more curved
B.
the iris dilates and lets in more light
C.
the lens increases in curvature
D.
the eyeball shortens to bring the image in focus
C
Constriction of the pupil is brought about by contraction of the
A.
ciliary muscle
B.
circular muscle of the iris
C.
extrinsic muscles of the eye
D.
cornea
B
Photopigment in the rods and cones is imbedded in the
A.
mitochondria
B.
Golgi complex
C.
synapse region between these cells and the horizontal cells
D.
membrane folds of the outer segment of these cells
D
The most common type of color blindness is
A.
red-blue color blindness
B.
red-green color blindness
C.
blue-green color blindness
D.
total color blindness
B
In daylight, rods contribute little to vision because
A.
they become totally depolarized
B.
the mitochondria cannot generate enough energy
C.
the rhodopsin is bleached as fast as it is regenerated
D.
the outer segments lose their photopigments
C
When light hits the rods
A.
Na+ channels close and less inhibitory neurotransmitter is released
B.
the outer segment depolarizes and initiates a nerve impulse
C.
they inhibit the activity of bipolar cells
D.
more photopigment is manufactured
A
The external auditory meatus passes through the
A.
occipital bone
B.
cribriform plate of the ethmoid
C.
temporal bone
D.
nasal cavities
C
Which of the following helps maintain proper air pressure in the middle ear?
A.
stapedius muscle
B.
Eustachian tube
C.
external auditory meatus
D.
osseous labyrinth
B
Endolymph is found within the
A.
scala vestibuli
B.
scala tympani
C.
cochlear duct
D.
otolith
C
Which of the following generates a receptor potential in hair cells?
A.
contact with the basilar membrane
B.
movement of perilymph
C.
bending of stereocilia
D.
breakdown of photopsin
C
The round window connects to the
A.
scala tympani
B.
incus
C.
scala vestibuli
D.
basilar membrane
A
Nerve fibers that synapse with hair cells in the organ of Corti unite to form part of the _____ nerve
A.
optic
B.
oculomotor
C.
olfactory
D.
vestibulocochlear
D
Which of the following represents the correct pathway leading to the perception of sound?
A.
tympanic membrane, ossicles, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells
B.
tympanic membrane, ossicles, perilymph, endolymph, hair cells
C.
ossicles, tympanic membrane, endolymph, perilymph, hair cells
D.
ossicles, perilymph, tympanic membrane, endolymph, hair cells
B
Which of the following is associated with equilibrium?
A.
vestibular membrane
B.
basilar membrane
C.
otolithic membrane
D.
ciliary processes
C
Otoliths are
A.
crystals
B.
hair cells
C.
taste cells
D.
bipolar neurons
A
Each crista in the semicircular ducts is covered by a gelatinous material called the
A.
macula
B.
utricle
C.
cupula
D.
auricle
C
Sound waves are translated into nerve impulses in the
A.
cochlea
B.
saccule
C.
middle ear
D.
utricle
A
A reflex reaction to loud sounds prevents damage to the inner ear. This reaction is due to contraction of:
A.
hair cells
B.
tensor tympani & stapedius muscles
C.
the Eustachian tube
D.
the pinna, allowing it to fold over the external auditory meatus
B
The oval window connects to the
A.
Eustachian tube
B.
basilar membrane
C.
utricle
D.
stapes
D
Pitch is
A.
the frequency of a sound vibration
B.
the loudness of a sound
C.
the angle light travels through the lens to reach the fovea centralis
D.
measured in decibels
A
Perilymph fills the
A.
anterior cavity
B.
bony labyrinth
C.
membranous labyrinth
D.
rods and cones
B
The neural receptors for the sense of hearing are located in the
A.
outer ear
B.
middle ear
C.
inner ear
D.
brain
C
High intensity (loud) sounds can cause deafness because they are most damaging to the
A.
hair cells of the spiral organ of Corti
B.
secondary tympanic membrane
C.
bones of the middle ear
D.
tympanic membrane
A
Meniere's syndrome is caused by
A.
bacterial infection of the middle ear
B.
increased number of blood vessels growing over the ear drum
C.
increased amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labyrinth
D.
excessive stimulation of the vestibular apparatus by motion
C
____ reac­tions are asso­ci­ated with growth. ____ are asso­ci­ated with the release of energy and energy pro­duc­tion.
Ana­bolic
Cata­bolic
What refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion?
Diffusion
If two solutions of different concentration are separated by a semi-permeable membrane which is permeable to to the smaller solvent molecules but not to the larger solute molecules, then the solvent will tend to diffuse across the membrane from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution. This process is called?
osmosis.
The retina consists of two types of photoreceptor cells, ____ and ____.
rods and cones
What produces low resolution, black and white images. Rod or Cones?
Rods
What functions in bright light to produce high resolution color images. Rods or Cones?
Cones