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72 Cards in this Set

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Tsar of Russia who came to power during the Crimean War and realized reforms were necessary. He issued the emancipation edict to free serfs (1861), instituted a system of local assemblies (zemstvos in 1864), and created a legal reform in 1864 which created a regular system of local and provincial courts and a judicial code that accepted the principle of equality before the law.
Alexander II (1855-1881)
"politics of reality" which was best shown by Bismarck. It was choosing the path of realism for governing rather than the usual ethical governing
Bismarck believed that the unification of Germany would come only through blood and iron, which was a main reason why he initiated the wards to gain the land necessary for unification. He said this in a speech to the Parliament in his mission to justify the increase in the size of the army, when he said, "the great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions but by blood and iron."
"Blood and Iron"
Was appointed Prime Minister of Piedmont by Victor Emanuel II. He was a liberal minded but more moderate nobleman who favored a constitutional Gov. He pursed a policy of economic expansion in Piedmont and building of roads, canals, railroads, and business enterprise. He lured to the Austrians into attacking Italy and then the Italian allies the French over powered the Austrians; Cavour was an instrumental figure in Italian unification
Count Camillo Cavour
King William I of Prussia sent a letter to Bismarck with a report of the discussions that had been going on with the French. Before the letter was released to the press Bismarck altered meanings and words in the letter, and this made the French mad so 6 days later the French declared war on Prussia just as Bismarck wanted
Ems Dispatch
Started because the French didn’t want Germany to become a power being geographical next to France. Also Isabella II of Spain died and a relative of the German king had a bid to the throne and the French didn’t want to be surrounded by German rulers. Then Ems Dispatch happened and France attacked Prussia. The French proved to be no match for a better Prussian army and Prussian allies. In the end Prussia received 5 million lands and territories such as Alsace and Lorraine
Franco-Prussian War
The Crimean War began in 1853 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire when the Russians demanded the right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine, a privilege that had already been given to the French. When the Ottomans refused to give the privilege to Russia, Russians invaded Moldavia and Wallachia. The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia on Oct. 4, 1853. In 1854 Great Britain and France declared war on Russia. Russia thought that they could count on Austria to be their ally, but Austria chose to remain neutral. The Crimean War was poorly planned and fought, and was costly to both sides. In Sept 1855, the main Russian fortress at Sevastopol fell, 6 months after the death of Tsar Nicholas I. His successor, Tsar Alexander II, sued for peace. By the Treaty of Paris in 1856, Russia had to give up Bessarabia and accept the neutrality of the Black Sea, and Moldavia and Wallachia were placed under the protections of all 5 great powers
Crimean War
a dedicated Italian patriot who had supported Mazzini; raised an Army of 1000 red shirts (his volunteers were called this because of their distinctive dress). On May 11, 1860, he landed in Sicily, where a revolt has broken out against the Bourbon king of the Two Sicily’s. His forces won and by July 1860, most fo Sicily was under his control. IN August Girabaldi and his forces headed up the Italian Peninsula, soon to met up with Cavour. Cavour's Piedmont army invaded the Papal States and moved into Naples. Garibaldi chose to not fight Cavour and this helped make way for a unified Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
It was stimulated by the rise of romanticism and nationalism and it grew with the awakening of the Slavs within the Austrian and Ottoman empires. The first Pan-Slav Congress, held at Prague in 1848 and presided over by František Palacky, was confined to the Slavs under Austrian rule and was anti-Russian. The humiliating defeat suffered by Russia in the Crimean War (1853–56) helped transform a vague, romantic Russian Slavophilism into a militant and nationalistic Russian Pan-Slavism. In the reign of Czar Alexander II, the foreign minister, Aleksandr Gorchakov, opposed Pan-Slav aspirations, although many officials were Pan-Slavist
Pan Slavism
was invaded by the Piedmontese army, but they avoided Rome so as to avoid conflict with France, the defender of the Papacy.   Plebiscites with in the Papal States supported union with Piedmont.   The Papal States in their entirety were annexed by Italy in 1870
The Papal States
Arose over the Danish Government's attempt to annex the two territories of Schleswig and Holstein. This angered German nationalists, so both Austria and Prussia declared war on Denmark. The Danish were quickly defeated
Prussian-Danish War
This is also known as the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Austria was politically isolated by Bismarck, who then used the joint occupation of Schleswig and Holstein to push the Austrians to war. The Prussians won the war with their needle gun and network of railroads, but refused to burden Austria with a harsh peace treaty
Seven Weeks War
An agreement signed in plombieres between Cavour and Napoleon helped Napoleon III gain influence in Italy and Piedmont-Sardinia wage war with Austria
Treaty of Plombieres
Bismarck was appointed premier in 1862 by William I in order to secure adoption of the Prussian king’s army program, which was then being strenuously opposed in parliament. He questioned the "Great question". Responsible for waging wars and the formation of German confederation. He believed in " real politic", not socialism. (was the best representative of the “real politik)
Otto von Bismarck
the republic that was developed by Mazinni in the early years of Italy, but never succeeded.
Young Italy
leader of Piedmont-Sardinia. He pushed for the unification of italy
Victor Emmanuel II
British nurse during the Crimean war. Believed that sanitation saved lives, and she made nursing a reputable career
Florence Nightengale
Italian word for resurgence. the efforts at unifying Italy under one ruler
He was the emperor of Mexico from 1864-67. When Mexican conservatives negotiated with Napoleon III to found a Mexican empire, Maximilian was persuaded to accept the crown. The empire fell apart with the beginning of the civil war
Emperor Maximilien
Napoleon III reconstructed the city of Paris. Under the
direction of Baron Haussmann, the medieval Paris of narrow streets and old
city walls was destroyed and replaced by a modern Paris of broad boulevards,
spcious buildings, circular plazas, public squares, an underground sewage
system, a new public water supply, and gas lights. The new Paris served a
military as well as an aesthetic purpose
Paris rebuilt
He was a leader of the Liberals and was responsible for a
series of impressive reforms. Legislation and government orders opened civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage, introduced the secret ballot for voting, and abolished the practice of purchasing military commissions. Also, the Education Act of 1870 attempted to make schools available for all children
William Gladstone
he was the Tory leader (Tories were the Conservatives) in Parliament who was motivated by the desire to win over the newly enfranchised groups to the Conservative Party. He helped pass the Reform Act of 1867 and by that believed that this would benefit the Conservatives
Benjamin Disraeli
was an important step toward the democratization of Britain. By lowered the monetary requirements for voting (taxes paid or income earned), it by and large enfranchised many male urban workers. The number of voters then doubled
Reform Act of 1867
attempted to make elementary schools available for all children. This was a liberal reform
Education Act of 1870
A village community of peasant farmers in prerevolutionary Russia
what seemed to be the only lasting result of the 1848 revolution was this act on September 7, 1848, that freed the serfs and eliminated all compulsory labor services
Emancipation of serfs
In 1864, Alexander II of Russia instituted a system of zemstzof, or local assemblies, that provided a moderate degree of self-government. The voting of representatives was based on landholding, so nobility had the upper hand even though the peasants were still allowed to participate. The assembly was given the power to provide piblic services such as, education, famine relief, and road and bridge maintenance
The realism of an account, a description, a character
(1818-1883) Karl Marx was born and educated in Prussia, where he fell under the influence of Ludwig Feuerbach and other radical Hegelians. Although he
shared Hegel's belief in dialectical structure and historical inevitability,
Marx held that the foundations of reality lay in the material base of
economics rather than in the abstract thought of idealistic philosophy. He
earned a doctorate at Jena in 1841, writing on the materialism and atheism
of Greek atomists, and then moved to Köln, where he founded and edited a radical
newspaper, Rheinische Zeitung. Although he also attempted to earn a living
as a journalist in Paris and Brussels, Marx's participation in unpopular
political movements made it difficult to support his growing family. He
finally settled in London in 1849, where he lived in poverty while studying
and developing his economic and political theories. Above all else, Marx
believed that philosophy ought to be employed in practice to change the
The core of Marx's economic analysis found early expression in the
Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 (Economic and
Political Manuscripts of 1844) (1844). There, Marx argued that the
conditions of modern industrial societies invariably result in the
estrangement (or alienation) of workers from their own labor. In his review
of a Bruno Baier book, On the Jewish Question (1844), Marx decried the
lingering influence of religion over politics and proposed a revolutionary
re-structuring of European society. Much later, Marx undertook a systematic
explanation of his economic theories in Das Capital (Capital) (1867-95) and
Theorien Über den Mehrwert (Theory of Surplus Value) (1862).

Marx and his colleague Friedrich Engels issued the Manifest der
kommunistischen Partei (Communist Manifesto) (1848) in the explicit hope of
precipitating social revolution. This work describes the class struggle
between proletariat and bourgeoisie, distinguishes communism from other
socialist movements, proposes a list of specific social reforms, and urges
all workers to unite in revolution against existing regimes. (You may wish
to compare this prophetic document with the later exposition of similar
principles in Lenin's State and Revolution (1919).)
Karl Marx
In the BATTLE AT SEDAN (Sept. 2nd 1870), the FRANCO-GERMAN WAR practically was decided; Emperor Napoleon III. Was taken prisoner. PROVISORICAL GOVERNMENT was established (Sept. 4th) with seat at Bordeaux. Prussian and allied troops meanwhile laid siege to the city of Paris (Sept. 19th 1870).
For the duration of the siege the Parisians had to organize their city on
their own. In Paris, a city with a population traditionally inclined to revolution,
three major political groups emerged, the JACOBINS in favour of a controlled
revolution, the PROUDHONISTS who wanted to establish a federation of
communes and the BLANQUISTES who propagated violent revolution. When the
siege was finally ended (with the surrender of Paris, Jan. 28th) and troops
of the traditional government were sent in to cautiously reestablish order
(May 18th), some of them fraternized with the communards. The Provisional
Government then decided to suppress the commune by force; fighting began on
May 21st 1871. About 20,000 revolutionaries were shot, another 38,000 were
arrested. Fighting had lasted one week; in the course of the fighting the
revolutionaries had set part of the city ob fire. The TUILERIES were among
the buildings affected
Paris Commune 1870-1871
Following the rule of his brother Alexander I,
Nicholas' claiming of the throne led to the December revolt that was
quickly put down by numerous Nicholas supporters. After this revolt, he
changed from a conservative leader into a very suppressive leader who
managed to put down any insurrections through numerous reforms such as
new secret military police. He was very paranoid of revolutions that he
would stop at nothing to crush any rebellion within Europe
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
Since the rise of more superpowers in Europe, there was still the encroachment of the Muslim Ottoman Empire. After the defeat at Vienna by the Austrians, they began to move towards a decline in power and influence. This degraded empire soon received the name,"Sick Man of Europe" due to the deterioration that was poisoning the other neighboring countries. The main theory of the Eastern Question was brought up by the British and French as to comment on the handling of the Ottoman Empire. They didn't want Russia to gain any of the land of the Ottomans that contained numerous military and economic ports
The Eastern Question
The dual owning of the French house of Savoy that
many looked to for the unification of Italy. Out of this state of
Piedmont came the prime minister who ended up unifying Italy through the
French, Count Cavour di Camillo. With this state controlling the new
centralized govern
meant after Garibaldi's reclamation of the Kingdom of
the Two Scicilies, eventually they received Venetia from Prussia and Rome
from the French and ended up to become the new united Italian state on
September 20, 1870.
Piedmont Sardinia
The Corn Laws that were supposed to protect
the landowners from being overcharged for inflation in corn from the
immense spending for the Napoleonic wars, but actually wasn't beneficial
as they caused an necessary inflation on the working class. Eventually
Parliament repealed them in 1846
Corn Laws Abolished (1846)
An official agreement between governments at war, especially one concerning the exchange of prisoners
The Reichstag was the large domed building in Berlin that was the home of the German Parliament
England was not troubled by revolutionary disturbances, as the parliamentary system showed its ability to make social and political reforms, which kept the country stable and prosperous
Victorian England
The Industrial Revolution that occurred in England and also it occurred in Germany as well, not as extreme, and much later, but had the same long lasting effects as it did on England
Second Industrial Revolution
Exclusive control by one group of the means of producing or
selling a commodity or service
deals with mining in the US and child labor and other
Boom and bust
An association or a combination, as of businesses, financial
institutions, or investors, for the purpose of engaging in a joint venture.
A cooperative arrangement among groups or institutions: a library
the monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918
Dual Monarchy
A sort of hatred or rejection of the Jewish religion. "The
intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people"
The U.S war between the North and the South over the
rights to have slaves act.
American Civil War
"a republic in central Africa; formerly under Belgian
control" At its foundation in 1885, the Congo Free State was divided into 4
districts, headed by Chefs de Division. Several reorganizations followed and
by 1912 their number had increased to 22 (including the four into which
Katanga had been divided after its integration into Congo in 1910).
Belgian Congo
In 1877, Britain annexed the Transvaal Republic in
southern Africa. This annexation was followed by successful military
expansion in Natal. In December 1880, the Boers of the Transvaal revolted
against British rule, defeated an imperial force and forced the British
government, under Gladstone, to recognize their independence
Boer War (1899-1902)
after the western powers humiliated China and refused to leave their country, this rebellion occurred from 1900 – 1901 as an revolt against foreigners; the Boxers was the name given to Chinese that were part of the secret Society of Harmonious Fists who wanted to rid foreigners from China; during the rebellion, the Boxers murdered foreign missionaries and anyone who converted to Christianity, railroad workers, foreign businessmen, and the German envoy to Beijing; as a result, Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and Japan all allied together and restored order in Beijing; they also demanded more concessions from the Chinese government; however, the new Republic of China remained weak and ineffective
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
The Manchu dynasty in China was trying to limit trade with the western world, thus creating an imbalance of trade, mostly for Britain; to try and counter this, Britain began to use opium, which is highly addictive, as money; the demand for opium in China exploded as more and more Chinese became addicted, even though it was prohibited in China; the Chinese government erupted, causing British retaliation; eventually, the British won the wars and forced China to pay huge sums of money, allow British nationals to be excused form Chinese law, and to give up Hong Kong as a British territory
Opium War (1839-1842)
Britain’s private trading company that was responsible for suppressing India; however, in 1858, the company’s army’s Indian troops revolted and were crushed; thus, British Parliament shifted the East India Company’s powers directly to the government in London and in 1876, India became a British colony
East India Company
struggle between France and Great Britain to gain territory in Africa; final battle took place in Fashoda near the Nile River; Britain eventually defeated France, gaining Fashoda for Egypt, while France received part of the Sahara as recompense
Fashoda Incident (1898)
extreme nationalism characterized especially by a belligerent foreign policy; chauvinistic patriotism
A well-known British writer known for his short story, poetry, and novel. In 1907 Kipling won the Nobel Prize in literature in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration, which characterized his writings. Most of his poetry was focused on imperialism and racial topics
Rudyard Kipling
written by Kipling focusing on the notion that superior white peoples had the moral responsibility to raise ignorant native peoples to a higher level of civilization
The White Man's Burden
where one country doesn't restrict the commerce of the other countries in its sphere of influence. During the time when China was encouraged to open its trade to other foreign countries
Open-door policy
Leader of American naval forces who
forced Japan to give trading and diplomatic privileges to the U.S.
Commodore Matthew Perry (1794-1858)
a relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a
superior power over a dependent country or region. (Practiced by European
countries in Africa and Asia in this unit.)
Largely responsible for the British policy in South Africa; he founded various gold and diamond companies which monopolized these industries in an area he named after himself (Rhodesia); in his imperialistic zeal for Britain, he hoped to create and link a series of British colonies by railroad, but was forced to resign by the British government when he conspired to overthrow the Boer government of the South African Republic without consent.
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
Due to Russian territorial expansion, conflict
erupted between the Russians and the Japanese. Ending in a Russian defeat,
Japan shocked Europe proving there was an Asian military superior to a major
European power
Russo-Japanese War (1905)
a brief intense conflict that effectively ended Spain's world wide empire and gained the United States several new possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific. The war featured two major battles, one in the Philippines and there off Cuba
Spanish American War (1898)
uprising in northern and central India against the British rule. Acknowledged to be the first ever united rebellion against colial rule in India. Natives were dissatisfied by the heavy-handed rule of the British East India Company
Sepoy Rebellion
areas that are influenced by a certain culture or country that are not necessarily a part of the country
Spheres of influence
exemption from local jurisdiction, such as that granted to foreign diplomats
This canal was built from 1859-1869 and linked the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The construction was guided by Ferdinand de Lesseps.
Suez Canal
It was first invented in 1837 in the U.S. by Samuel Morse to send messages over long distances. His method of transmission became known as the Morse code. The first telegraph was sent in 1844. In England, Sir William Cook and Sir Charles Wheatstone also came up with a telegraph in 1837.
This canal was constructed by the United States from 1904-1914 and connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It runs across the Isthmus of Panama in Central America.
Panama Canal
Hobson (1858-1940) was an English economist, who wrote one of the best critiques imperialism due to good economy. He analyzed capitalism, and from that, Lenin formulated the theory of imperialism saying it was the highest stage of capitalism
Hobson/Lenin Critiques
Held in Berlin between November 15, 1884 and November 26, 1885 under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck. Controlling the slave trade and promoting humanitarianism were the focus of the conference, but there were only empty resolutions passed about the ending of slave trade and providing for the welfare of Africa. Overall, the result of the conference was a dividing of the continent of Africa between the European powers
Berlin Conference (1884)
Two periods of international tension in 1905 and 1911 following German objections to French expansion in Morocco. Both crises served to reinforce the isolation of Germany.
Moroccan Crises (1905, 1911)
William II, wanting to gain more power for Germany, traveled to Tangier in March 1905 and delivered an insulting speech concerning his nation's ambitions in Morocco. Tensions rapidly developed and talk of war circulated through Europe. William II realized that Germany was not prepared for war and urged the major powers for an international peace conference
Algeciras Conference
The most popular advocator for the theory of social Darwinism. In 1896, Spencer published a book called Social Statics where he argued about the progression of and advancement of society; the strong advance while the weak decrease in numbers and die out
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
the fight for the Balkan Peninsula that used to be a part of the Ottoman Empire
Balkan crisis
The Conference met at Berlin from November 1884 through February 1885 and resulted in the following the agreement, The Berlin Act of 1885. It was attended by representatives of Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Russia, U.S.A., Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium and Turkey. The Act established the Congo basin as the Congo Free State under the sovereignty of Leopold II in his personal capacity as head of the private International Congo Association
Berlin Conference