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275 Cards in this Set

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Humanism
scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome; promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history
Christian Humanism
associated with northern Europe; studied classical texts; gave humanism a Christian context; committed to religious piety and institutional reform; Desiderius Erasmus
Vernacular
everyday language of a region or country; Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, & Martin Luther all used it; Desiderius Erasmus continued to write in Latin
New Monarchs
created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy; negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church; Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella
Taille
direct tax on the French peasantry; most important source of income for French monarchs until the French revolution
Reconquista
Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims; ended 1492 with the conquest of Granada
Indulgence
certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church; time in purgatory reduced by many years or all together canceled
Anabaptist
protestants who insist that only adult baptism conformed to the scripture; advocated the complete separation of church and state
Predestination
John Calvin; God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved or who will be damned
John Calvin
"by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation and whom he would condemn to destruction"
Huguenots
French Protestants; followed teachings of John Calvin
Politiques
rules that put political needs over personal beliefs; Henry IV of France, Elizabeth I of England
Columbian Exchange
interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the old world and the new world
Mercantilism
close government regulation of the economy; emphasized a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports; supported acquisition of colonies; wanted to accumulate reserves of gold and silver
Putting-Out System
preindustrial manufacturing system; entrepreneur brings materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes; allowed the avoidance of restrictive guild regulations
Joint-Stock Company
investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone; share profits in proportion to the amount they invest; used these to finance the new world colonies
Absolutism
ruler claims sole and incontestable power; not limited by constitutional restraints
Divine Right of Kings
idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, French Bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV
"the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on earth, for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself are called gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers"
Intendants
French royal officials; supervised provincial governments in the name of the king; key role in French absolutism
Fronde
rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652; key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace
Robot
forced labor used in eastern Europe; abolished in 1848
Junkers
Prussia's landowning nobility; supported monarchy; served in army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs
Scientific Method
inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature; patterns are then described with mathematical formulas
Philosophes
eighteenth century writers; stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system; Voltaire
Deism
God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature; natural laws can be discovered by the use of human reason
General Will
political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole; the general will is identical to the rule of law; Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Enlightened Despotism
absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people; supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies; Joseph II, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great
Enclosure Movement
British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops
Enclosure Acts
led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners
Agricultural Revolution
innovations in farm production; eighteenth-century Holland and spread to England, replaced the open-field agricultural system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture
Physiocrats
criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade; led by Francois Quesnay
Invisible Hand
self-regulating nature of a free marketplace; phrase made by Adam Smith
Parlements
French regional courts dominated by heredity nobles; claimed right to register royal decrees before they could become law
Girondins
moderate republic faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793; favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's borders
Jacobins
radical republic party during French Revolution; unleashed the Reign of Terror; Maximilien Robespierre, Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacquest Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau
Sans-Culottes
working people of Paris; long working pants and support for radical politics
Levee en Masse
all males into the army; new type of military force based on mass participation and a fully mobilized economy
Thermidorian Reaction
reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution; associated with the Reign of Terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the Directory
Legitimacy
rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power; ex. Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France
Balance of Power
maintain an equilibrium; weak countries join together to match the power of a stronger country; guiding principle of the Congress of Vienna
Liberalism
representative government dominated by the propertied classes, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech
Conservatism
supported legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches; gradual change in social order
Nationalism
nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language; every nation should be sovereign and include all members; greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state
Romanticism
reaction against Neoclassical emphasis upon reason; stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature
Chartism
political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s; universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons
Zollverein
free-trade union; major German states in 1834
Carbonari
secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in 1820s
Luddites
British textile artisans against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution; thought machinery would eliminate their jobs and attempted to destroy it
Utilitarianism
based on the principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number; should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system; Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
"the greatest happiness for the greatest number"
Utopian Socialists
replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation; property should be communally owned; Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc
Marxism
history is the result of a class conflict; new classless society would abolish private property; Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels
Second Industrial Revolution
increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads; spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States
Social Darwinism
natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive
Realpolitik
"the politics of reality"; tough, practical politics; idealism and romanticism play no part; Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Caovour
Syndicalism
bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions; endorsed strikes and sabotage
Autocracy
ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner; ex. Romanov dynasty in Russia
Duma
Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905
Imperialism
extending one country's rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination
Sphere of Influence
region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, a foreign nation
Fourteen Points
idealistic peace aims; national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade; President Woodrow Wilson
Bolsheviks
revolutionary Marxists who seized power in Russia in 1917; led by Vladimir Lenin
New Economic Policy
initiated by Vladimir Lenin; stimulated the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in early 1920s; utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture
Existentialism
God, reason, and progress are all myths; humans must accept responsibility for their actions; sense of dread and anguish; reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the 20th century
Relativity
time and space do not exist separately; combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured; associated with Albert Einstein
Totalitarianism
government has total control over the lives of individual citizens
Fascism
combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy; glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties
Kulaks
prosperous landowning peasants in czarist Russia; Joseph Stalin "liquidated them as a class" by executing them
Keynesian Economics
governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth; John Maynard Keynes
Appeasement
making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war; Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler
Containment
contain or block the spread of Soviet Policy; expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance; inspired by George F. Kennan
Decolonization
colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after World War II
De-Stalinization
liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union; denouncing Joseph Stalin's cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West; carried out by Nikita Khrushchev
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need; justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968
Detente
the relaxation of tensions between the US and the Soviet Union; introduced by Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon; ex. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and President Nixon's trips to China and Russia
Solidarity
polish labor union in 1980; contested communist party programs' ousted the party from the Polish government; founded by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz
Glasnost
policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1980s; new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies
Perestroika
Mikhail Gorbachev in 1980s; called for less government regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture
Welfare State
state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
renaissance political philosopher who wrote The Prince
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
believed that people are ungrateful and untrustworthy
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
urged rulers to study war, avoid unnecessary kindness, and always base policy upon the principle that the end justifies the means
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
northern humanist who wrote In Praise of Folly
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
wrote in Latin while most humanists wrote in the vernacular
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
wanted to reform the Catholic Church, not destroy it
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Protestant reformer whose criticism of indulgences helped spark the Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
advocated salvation by faith, the authority of the Bible, and a priesthood of all believers
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
believed that Christian women should strive to become models of wifely obedience and Christian charity
John Calvin (1509-1564)
Protestant reformer who wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin (1509-1564)
believed in the absolute omnipotence of God, the weakness of humanity, and the doctrine of predestination
John Calvin (1509-1564)
established geneva as a model christian community
John Calvin (1509-1564)
influenced followers who were known as huguenots in france, presbyterians in scotland, and puritans in england and the new england colonies
John Calvin (1509-1564)
advocated that each local congregation have a ruling body composed of both ministers and laymen who carefully supervised the moral conduct and faithful
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
french renaissance writer who developed the essay as a literary genre
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
known for his skeptical attitude and willingness to look at all sides of an issue
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
polish clergyman and astronomer who wrote On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
helped launch the scientific revolution by challenging the widespread belief in the geocentric theory that the earth is the center of the universe
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
offered a new heliocentric universe in which the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
began his career as an assistant to the danish astronomer tycho brahe
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
formulated three laws of planetary motion
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
proved that planetary orbits are elliptical rather than circular
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
italian scientist who contributed to the scientific method by conducting controlled experiments
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
major accomplishments included using the telescope for astronomical observation, formulating laws of motion, and popularizing the new scientific ideas
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
condemned by the inquisition for publicly advocating Copernicus's heliocentric theory
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
english scientist and mathematician who wrote the Principia
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
viewed the universe as a vast machine governed by the universal laws of gravity and inertia
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
mechanistic view of the universe strongly influenced deism
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
english politician and writer
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
formalized the empirical method into a general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
french philosopher and mathematician
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
used deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to reach scientific laws
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
english political philosopher who wrote Leviathan
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
viewed human beings as naturally self-centered and prone to violence
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
feared the dangers of anarchy more than the dangers of tyranny
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
argued that monarchs have absolute and unlimited political authority
John Locke (1632-1704)
english philosopher who wrote The Second Treatise of Government
John Locke (1632-1704)
viewed humans as basically rational beings who learn from experience
John Locke (1632-1704)
formulated the theory of natural rights, arguing that people are born with basic rights to "life, liberty, and property"
John Locke (1632-1704)
insisted that governments are formed to protect natural rights
John Locke (1632-1704)
stated that the governed have a right to revel against rulers who violate natural rights
Voltaire (1694-1778)
french philosophe and voluminous author of essays and letters
Voltaire (1694-1778)
championed the enlightened principles of reason, progress, toleration, and individual liberty
Voltaire (1694-1778)
opposed superstition, intolerance, and ignorance
Voltaire (1694-1778)
criticized organized religion for perpetuation superstition and intolerance
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
enlightened thinker best known for writing The Social Contract and Emile
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
believed that since "law is the expression of the general will," the state is based on a social contract
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
emphasized the education of the whole person for citizenship
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
rejected excessive rationalism and stressed emotions, thus anticipated the romantic movement
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
scottish economist who wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
opposed mercantilist policies
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
advocated free trade and "the Invisible Hand of competition"
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
British writer, philosopher, and feminist who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
argued that women are not naturally inferior to men
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
maintained that women deserve the same fundamental rights as men
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
english conservative leader who wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
denounced the radicalism and violence of the French Revolution
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
favored gradual and orderly change
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
english utilitarian and essayist best known for writing On Liberty and The Subjection of Women
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
advocated women's rights and endorsed universal suffrage
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
scientific socialist who coauthored The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
believed that the history of class conflict is best understood through the dialectical process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
contended that a class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would lead "to the dictatorship of the proletariat," which in turn would be a transitional phase leading to a classless society
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
british biologist who wrote The Origin of Species
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
challenged the idea of special creation by proposing a revolutionary theory of biological evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
concluded that every living plant and animal takes part in a constant "struggle for existence" in which only the "fittest" survive
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
argued that the fittest are determined by a process of natural selection
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
austrian psychologist who formulated groundbreaking theories of human personality
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
theorized that the human psyche contains three distinct parts: (1) the id, which is the center of unconscious sexual and aggressive drives; (2) the superego, which is the center of moral values; and (3) the ego, which is the center of pragmatic reason
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
argued that human behavior is often irrational
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
german physicist whose theory of special relativity undermined Newtonian physics
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
challenged traditional conceptions of time, space, and motion
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
contributed to the view that humans live in a universe with uncertainties
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
added to the feeling of uncertainty in the postwar world
Friedrich Nietzche (1844-1900)
german philosopher whose writings influenced existentialism
Friedrich Nietzche (1844-1900)
expressed contempt for middle-class morality, saying that it led to a false and shallow existence
Friedrich Nietzche (1844-1900)
rejected reason and embraced the irrational
Friedrich Nietzche (1844-1900)
believed that the "will to power" of a few heroic "supermen" could successfully reorder the world
Albert Camus (1913-1960) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
french existentialist philosophers and writers
Albert Camus (1913-1960) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
questioned the efficacy of reason and science to understand the human situation
Albert Camus (1913-1960) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
believed that god, reason, and progress are myths, and that humans live in a hostile world, alone and isolated
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
ended the religious civil war between Roman Catholics and Lutherans in the German states
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state, either Roman Catholic or Lutheran
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
failed to provide for the recognition of Calvinists or other religious groups
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
reformed Catholic Church discipline and reaffirmed church doctrine
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
preserved the papacy as the center of Christianity
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
confirmed all seven existing sacraments
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
reaffirmed latin as the language of worship
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
forbade clerical marriage
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
issued by Henry IV of France
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
granted religious toleration to French Protestants
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
marked the first formal recognition by a European national monarchy that two religions could coexist in the same country
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
revoked by Louis XIV in 1685
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
ended the thirty years' war
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
recognized calvinism as a legally permissible faith
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
recognized the sovereign independent authority of over 300 german states
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
continued the political fragmentation of germany
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
granted sweden additional territory, confirming its status as a major power
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
acknowledged the independence of the united provinces of the netherlands
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
ended louis xiv's efforts to dominate europe
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
allowed philip v to remain on the throne of spain but stipulated that the crowns of spain and france should never be worn by the same monarch
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
granted the spanish netherlands to the austrian habsburgs along with milan, naples, and sicily
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
granted england a number of territories including newfoundland, nova scotia, and gibraltar
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
granted england the asiento, the lucrative right to supply african slaves to spanish america
The Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
guaranteed the succession of habsburg emperor charles vi's eldest daughter, maria theresa, to the throne
The Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
guaranteed the indivisibility of the habsburg lands
The Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
violated when frederick the great of prussia invaded silesia in 1740
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
enacted a settlement that was acceptable to both the victors and to france
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
created a balance of power that lasted until the unification of germany in 1871
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
underestimated the forces of liberalism and nationalism
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
used the principle of legitimacy to restore the bourbons to the french throne
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
united belgium with the netherlands to form a single kingdom of the netherlands
The Congress of Vienna (1815)
created a loose confederation of 39 German states dominated by Austria
The Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
established rules for dividing Africa amongst the European powers. a european state could no longer simply declare a region of africa its colony. it first had to exercise effective control over the territory
The Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
declared the congo to be the "congo free state" under the personal control of leopold II of belgium
The Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
established rules governing the race for African colonies
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
refused to allow either defeated germany or communist russia to participate in peace conference negotiations
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
forced germany to sign a war-guilt clause that was used to justify imposing large war reparations payments
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
changed the map of europe by returning alsace-lorraine to france and dissolving austria-hungary into the separate states of austria, hungary, czechoslovakia, and yugoslavia
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
created the league of nations to discuss and settle disputes without resorting to war
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
legt a legacy of bitterness between the victors and germany
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
ended bolshevik russia's participation in world war i
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
negotiated by vladimir lenin because he was unwilling to risk bolshevik gains by continuing a war that could no longer be won
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
nullified following germany's defeat by the allies
The Locarno Pact (1925)
recorded an agreement between france and germany to respect mutual frontiers
The Locarno Pact (1925)
marked the beginning of a brief period of reduced tensions among the european powers
The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
outlawed war as an instrument of national policy
The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
violated repeatedly during the 1930s
The Munich Conference (1938)
ceded the sudetenland to adolf hitler
The Munich Conference (1938)
discredited the british policy of appeasement
The Nazi-Soveit Nonaggression Pact (1939)
created a nonaggression agreement in which hitler and joseph stalin promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war
The Nazi-Soveit Nonaggression Pact (1939)
divided eastern europe into german and soviet zones
North Atlantic Pact (1949)
established the north atlantic treaty organization (NATO) to coordinate the defense of its members
North Atlantic Pact (1949)
implemented Harry Truman's policy of containing the Soviet Union
North Atlantic Pact (1949)
forced to move its headquarters from paris to brussels when charles de gaulle withdrew french forces from the "american-controlled" NATO
The Treaty of Rome (1957)
created the european economic community (EEC), generally known as the common market
The Treaty of Rome (1957)
marked the beginning of European economic integration
The Helsinki Accords (1975)
ratified the european territorial boundaries established after world war ii
The Helsinki Accords (1975)
established "helsinki watch committees" to monitor human rights in the 35 nations that signed the helsinki accords
The Helsinki Accords (1975)
marked the high point of cold war detente
The Maastricht Treaty (1991)
created the european union (EU), the world's largest single economic market
The Maastricht Treaty (1991)
created a central bank for the european union
The Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione
book where it was written that the perfect court lady should be well educated and charming but not expected to seek fame as men did
Christine de Pizan
prolific author who wrote a history of famous women and is now remembered as Europe's first feminist
Isabella d'Este
most famous renaissance woman; her life illustrates that being a patron of the arts was the most socially acceptable role for a well-educated renaissance woman
Martin Luther
believed that christian women should strive to be models of obedience and christian charity
protestant reformation
reduced access to convents, thus changing the role of sixteenth-century women
quakers
regularly allowed women to preach
older, widowed women
most often accused of practicing witchcraft
women
played a key role in hosting salons
salons
gave educated women a voice in cultural affairs
madame geoffrin
most influential of the salon hostesses
support for superstition and witchcraft
declined as educated europeans turned to rational explanations for natural events
young married european couples
lived in nuclear families
large multigenerational households
what were the normal households in the eighteenth century?
mid- to late 20s
when did most couples postpone marriage until, in the eighteenth century?
domestic servants
in the eighteenth century, young peasant women increasingly left home to work as what?
march to versailles
women led to demand cheap bread and to force the royal family to move to paris
gain the right to vote or to hold political office
what privileges did women not gain during the french revolution?
olympia de gouges
wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen
olympia de gouges
demanded that french women be given the same rights as men
mary wollstonecraft
wrote A Vindication of the RIghts of Women
marry wollstonecraft
argued that women are not naturally inferior to men; that they only appear to be inferior because of a lack of education
napoleon bonaparte's civil code
reasserted the old regime's patriarchal system; gave extensive control over their wives
1881
year that divorce and property rights taken away by the napoleonic code were fully restored
john stuart mill
wrote The Subjection of Women
john stuart mill
argued that the social and legal inequalities imposed on women were a relic from the past
henrik ibsen
wrote A Doll's House
a doll's house
book that criticized conventional marriage roles
ideal middle-class woman
expected to be an "angel in the house" in the nineteenth century
ideal middle-class woman
in the nineteenth century, her most important roles were to be a devoted mother and the family's moral guardian
rising standards of living
made it possible for men and women to marry at a younger age in the nineteenth century
rising cost of child rearing
caused a decline in the size of middle-class families in the nineteenth century
well-educated women
in the nineteenth century, for this group, the only job opportunities were teaching, nursing, and social work
divorce
legalized in britain in 1857 and in france in 1884; however, catholic countries such as spain and italy did not permit it
right to control their own property
nineteenth century women's rights advocates worked primarily for this
right to vote
in 1900, no country in europe allowed women the ___
emmeline pankhurst
british women waged an aggressive campaign for women's suffrage, led by her
during world war i
millions of women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops during...
1918
parliament granted the suffrage to women over the age of 30, in what year?
marxists
who argued that both capitalism and middle-class husbands exploited women?
bolsheviks
proclaimed complete equality of rights for women
soviet
where were women urged to work outside the home, and divorce and abortion were both easily available?
soviet
where were women encouraged to become professionals and comprised three-quarters of the doctors there?
italy and germany
what countries, during the 1930s encouraged women to remain at home and provide their countries with more offspring
world war ii
the commitment to total war caused millions of women to enter the workforce during what?
women
who contributed directly to the war effort by serving as nurses and medics
night witches
women who served as combat pilots in the soviet union
postwar reconstruction
what required women to continue working after world war ii
france and italy
where did women gain the franchise in 1945
simone de beauvoir
led european feminists who called attention to social problems that women faced
simone de beauvoir
emphasized the need for women to control their own lives
european feminists
who worked for liberalized divorce laws, improved access to birth control information, and expanded child-care facilities
during the postwar period
when did women marry earlier and give birth to fewer children
employment rates
what dramatically increased for married women post world war ii