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54 Cards in this Set

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composer of deeply religious music produced during the enlightenment
Priest of the Church of England who preached reform of the church for 50 years all around England, unintentionally creating the Methodist Church.
Austrian physician who created a stir in Paris by supposedly curing ills with "animal magnetism." He was discredited later.
Mesmer's theory of healing that was in reality an early stage of hypnosis
a society with mostly enlightened views who met secretly all over Europe. Though there purposes were mostly innocent and intellectual, suspicion sprung from the secretiveness of their ceremonies.
"enlightened ones" a small branch of Freemasons in Germany who were considered so dangerous they were suppressed by the Bavarian government
Emilie du Chatelet
French woman who translated Newton's works and explained the significance of the new laws in her scientific essays.
Madame de Geoffrin
French lady who used her wealth to organized salon meetings of enlightenment thinkers, artists, and foriegners for 25 years.
Philosophe who wrote "On the Mind" and "On Man" and was also wealthy enough to host great entertainments to discuss such matters.
Philosophe who wrote "The Spirit of Laws" containing two main ideas: that ideal forms of government changed according to climate and circumstance, and the idea of separation of powers.
Philosophe who excelled in his easily read philosophical literature. He traveled throughout Europe during his life. He wasn't concerned with government reform but encouraged religious toleration, "natural religion" and "natural morality." He disapproved of most organized religion. Wrote "Universal History" as a secular history of the world. What he most desired was intellectual freedom and an enlightened government.
Swiss philosophe who lived and wrote outside of the French cultural sphere. From humble origins he became the most influential writer of the Enlightenment. He believed that society was evil, and all good qualities of man were products of nature, rather than society. He idealized the "state of nature." He was religious, though he believed in no church. He had more respect for feeling over critical thought. Wrote "Social Contract"
the General Will
Rousseau's political ideal in which all citizens surrendered their natural liberty to each other , fused their individual wills into a General Will, and agreed to accept the rulings of this General Will as final. Government was secondary to General Will, which could not be discovered merely by a vote.
separation of powers
Montesquieu's idea of splitting political powers among several persons or bodies to ensure that no one person or group had absolute authority. Checks and Balances
Early economists who worked with or within governments to achieve fiscal/tax reform and to increase the national wealth of France. THey opposed guild regulations and rice controls and coined the phrase "laissez-faire."
Physiocrat who acted as a physician to Louis XV
British economist who wrote "Wealth of Nations." He believed that an increase of wealth could be accomplished by removing unnecessary barriers and restrictions on commerce. He attacked mercantalism and wanted to limit government power in favor of the free market and free trade.
the idea of progress
Philosophes had many different ideas and ideals for the progress of society, religion, government, and knowledge. Generally the agency of progress was the state and progress was always encouraged by the spread of information.
French revolutionary who wrote a testament to the Enlightenment in his "Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind."
enlightened despotism
the rule of absolute monarchs or emperors who differed from their predecessors in justifying their authority on the grounds of usefulness to society. They were mostly secular, rational, and reformist.
Louis XV
French king and ineffectual ruler. He was unable to and uninterested in controlling his country, and was never able to fully pull the nation together with much-needed tax reform.
"Apres moi le deluge"
Louis XV's reputed quote meaning, after me the flood, or "nothing matters after i'm gone."
maupeou parlements
New parlements replacing the old representative ones by order of Louis XV. In these, the judges were salaried officials who were confined to purely judicial functions. This attempt to standardize legal taxes was eventually denounced as despotism and disbanded.
French land tax paid primarily by peasants, as nobles and most of the bourgeois and clergy were exempt.
French philosophe and physiocrat who acted as a government administrator under Louis XIV's reforming ministry. He planned to reform the French tax system but was so vigorously opposed by the parlements that he resigned.
Maria Theresa
Austrian empress who, after war in the 1740's, worked to consolidate and improve her empire. She united Bohemia and the Austrian provinces under a state bureaucracy. She created a tariff union between her territories. She worked to alleviate and regulate serfdom.
Joseph II
Son of Maria Theresa who ruled with a firmer and more ambitious hand. Enlightened despot. He abolished serfdom, decreed equality of taxation and criminal punishment regardless of class, and ordered religious tolerance. He modernized bureaucracy and tried to create a unified radicalized state across his empire, including Hungary.
Frederick the Great
Prussia's ruler during and after the Seven years war. He tried to improve his country with a simpler and more honest legal code and some alleviations of the burdens of serfdom. He ruled independently and never trained a successor.
Catherine the Great
Russian czar and enlightened despot. She carried out some enlightenment reforms (laegal codification, restricting torture, religious toleration), but she was unable to improve the conditions of serfs.
former soldier who led a massive serf revolt. His goals were the end of serfdom, taxation, and military conscription. He was defeated and repressed by Catherine.
an advisor and lover of Catherine who worked to prove to Frederick the successful civilization of Russia's Black Sea territory
Russian seaport on the Black Sea. The territory was gained from the peace treaty with the Turks
Potemkin village
towns established by potemkin in Russia's Black Sea territories. Frederick believed they were a facade, bogus evidence of a nonexistent prosperity.
Don Cossack
Russian term for migrants or "free persons" living along the middle or lower Don.
Polish Revolutionary political leader who tried to lead a revolt after the Second Partition of Poland. He even proposed abolition of serfdom. It was crushed when Russian and Prussian armies invaded Poland during the counterrevolution
French revolutionaries, seen to influence revolutionary movements in Poland.
Age of "Democratic Revolution"
A period of revolutionary activity in Europe and the Americas from the American Revolution to the revolutions of 1848. All the revolutions had some form of basic democratic reform, though it was not always complete or successful.
Scottish philosopher who resembled the philosophes but was moderate in his political ideas
English historian with moderate political ideas
British journalist and member of Parliament who attacked the policies of King George III. He was thrown out of the House of Commons but became a political hero. The public protested Parliament's actions bringing up the issue of whether the House of Commons should be influenced by the public.
English member of Parliament who supported a strong and independent House of Commons that acted without the influence of the King or their constituents.
northern scotsmen who were still loyal to their clan chiefs but after the revolt Britain exercised its authority over them.
Jacobite Revolution
Scottish Jacobites who revolted during the War of Austrian Succession and invaded England threatening to attack the British government
parliamentary sovereignty
parliament was the most powerful governing force in Europe. the reform movements in England were either to expand parliament's power or change the way it was yielded. Few wanted to weaken parliament
first British governor general in India. He was high-handed with some Indian princes and made enemies of many jealous English residents.
Stamp Act
Tax on on all uses of paper that the colonies objected to. Though it was low, it was one of the first British taxes to be really collected
Quebec Act
British law laying the foundation for empirical government in newly conquered Canada. Established Canadian border at Ohio river, farther south than colonists would have it. Colonists were outraged.
George Washington
commanding general of colonial troops
Thomas Paine
Englishman who encouraged revolution in America and later in France and England. Wrote Common Sense
Common Sense
pamphlet written by Paine encouraging independence from Britain. It argued for freedom over tyranny and stated that an island nation shouldn't rule a continent
Continental Congresses
Two gatherings that first established a boycott of British goods and then organized an American army
Thomas Jefferson
member of the Continental Congress who drafted the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
document written and approved by the continental Congress stating the United States separate and equal station among the powers of the earth
Battle of Saratoga
battle in the revolutionary war which the Americans won, persuading the French to declare war against Britain as the colonists had a chance