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36 Cards in this Set

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Ottoman Empire
One of the three major eastern empires. The Turkish power reached to about 50 miles from Viennaand extended over modern Romania and to the Black Sea.
Great German mathematician and philosopher. One of the only great cultural minds in Germany in the 17th century.
A great German musical family. One example of Germany's excel in music while many other cultural activities declined.
Imperial Diet
The German governmental body that had the power to raise troops and taxes but was never allowed to use it after the Thirty Years War for fear of diminishing the authority of the states.
Germanic liberties
freedom of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire from control by emperor or Empire
Wittelsbachs of Bavaria
the ruling family of Bavaria that was able to win an electorate in the Thirty Years War and used it to place family members in high church posts in the Rhineland. They sold their influence to France for backing against the Hapsburgs
Guelphs of Hannover
ruling family in Hanover which recieved an electorate from the Emperor in 1692. They inherited the throne of Great Britain through George I
Hohenzollerns of Prussia
electors of Brandenburg who inherited territories as far apart as the Rhine and the Vistula. Eventually ruled Prussia AKA the house of Brandenburg or Hohenzollern
free veto
the power that any member of the central Poland diet could use to disband a diet by stating his unalterable opposition. When a diet was broken up it was "exploded"
a fighting force in the Turkish army that consisted originally of Christian children taken from their families and raised in a purely military environment. Their only ambitions and interests were within the fighting organization so they were the main striking force of the Turkish military.
the political and religious leader of the Turkish/Ottoman Empire
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Frenchman who worked as a military adviser and commander to the Hapsburgs. Redesigned the supply, equipment, training, and command of the Hapsburg forces. Forced the Turks out of Hungary in 1697 at the battle of Zenta.
Charles VI
king-archduke of Austria Hungary who engineered the Pragmatic Sanction after the defeat of the Turks.
Pragmatic Sanction
document that ensured the Austrian Empire would pass entirely to one heir of the Hapsburg family, male or female
Maria Theresa
Daughter of Charles VI who was to inherit the throne under the direction of the Pragmatic Sanction
Siege of Vienna
the Turks, encouraged by Louis XIV, attacked Austria and made it to Vienna, where they besieged the city for two months before a defensive force led by John Sobieski, king of Poland, relieved the city
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish king who built up a strong army and got involved in the Thirty Years War. The Peace of Westphalia awarded it some coastal German territories. Then he was able to win the territories surrounding the Baltic.
Charles XII
Swedish king who protected Sweden from Denmark, Poland and Russia but was eventually crushed by the Russians when he tried to lead an army across the East Europen plain. Sweden once again became a small nation.
Elector of Brandenburg
One of the seven German princes who elected the Holy Roman Emperor. After 1415 the elector was always part of the Hohenzollern family.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Hohenzollern heir who maintained a small, competent Prussian army. He used this to help politically, rather than militarily. During the War of Spanish Succession the Holy Roman Emperor gave him the title of King of Prussia in exchange for use of his army.
the landed aristocracy of Prussia that were absorbed into military service in order to unify the country by means of the army
Frederick I
son of the Great Elector and King of Prussia. A frugal and hardworking king who more than doubled the size of the prussian army and devised new forms of discipline, maneuver, training, and recruitment. He also left a great fortune to his son.
Frederick II
AKA Frederick the Great. Son of Frederick I who siezed the region of Silesia from the kingdom of Bohemia which was supposed to be inherited by Maria Theresa. this doubled the size of Prussia, making it a great power.
drang Nach Osten
"drive to the east" made by German speaking people. This term represents the movement of people to the east of Germany. Germans replaced Slavs from the Elbe to Poland and in Prussia.
the old tsardom surrounding Moscow that the modern Russian Empire spread out from
Volga River
the area of Russian expansion where russians assimilated various Asian peoples known as Tartars
Mountain range in Northern Asia reached and crossed by Russian expansionists
area east of the Urals that was settled by Russia in the 1630s
Caspian Sea
The sea into which the Volga flowed. Better known to early Russians than the Baltic Sea.
Michael Romanov
The boy tsar who was elected by the Russian nobles in 1613 after a civil war disputing Russian leadership. The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia primarily as an absolute monarchy for the next 300 years.
Stephen Razin
Russian man who led an uprising of fugitive serfs, Cossacks and adventurers in 1667 following more laws reducing the rights of serfs. He proclaimed war against landlords, nobles, and priests but after some success he was captured and executed
a committee of bishops appointed by Peter the great to be the headof the Russian church
the civil official that was attached to the Synod as a government bureau whose task was to make sure that the church did nothing to displease the tsar
Peter the Great
Russian tsar who traveled in Western Europe when young and tried to implement many European economic ideas in Russia. His ultimate goal was to build an army to defend his borders and win ports on the Baltic and Black seas for year-round trade.
battle between Russia and Sweden in 1700 fought over Sweden's land on the Baltic coast. The Swedish army of 8000 beat Peter's army of 40,000
the battle between Russian and Sweden when Russia conquered the Swedish army after drawing them deep into Russia and leaving them exposed to the severe Russian winter. This battle ended Sweden's imperial days and won Russia a piece of the Baltic shore